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59 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What part of the small intestine opens into twhat part of the large intestine?
The Ileum of the small intestine opens into the cecum of the large intestine.
WHat is the peritoneum?
A large, thin, transparent sheet of serous membrane which lines the walls of the abdominopelvic cavity and is reflected onto the viscera.
What does the parietal peritoneum line?
The abdominal and pelvic walls.
What does visceral peritoneum line?
Covers abdominal and pelvic organs.
What is the peritoneal cavity?
A potential space between adjacent layers of peritoneum usually containing a small amount of fluid.
What is the name of the extension of the visceral peritoneum that connects organs to the posterior abdominal wall?
The mesentary
What are the 2 subdivisions of the peritoneal cavity?
The greater and lesser sacs. (divided by omentum)
What contains the 2 sacs of the peritoneal cavity?
The omental foramen.
Does the omental foramen communicate with the exterior?
Yes in females no in males.
What is the mesentary?
A double layer of peritoneum that connects an intra peritoneal organ to the posterior abdominal wall.
What is contained within the mesentary?
A CT core in which blood vessels, nerves and lymphatics travel to and from the organ.
Are organs with a mesentary movable?
When refering to simply mesentary what organ is usually being discussed?
The small intestine.
What are Intraperitoneal organs?
They are covered with visceral peritoneum except at sites where the mesentary attaches.
What are retroperitoneal organs?
They are not covered with visceral peritoneum on one or more sides. THey do not have a mesentery.
What do all intraperitoneal organs have?
Are intraperitoneal organs located in the peritoneal cavity?
NO fluid only in peritoneal cavity.
Described the attachment of retroperitoneal organs with the posterior abdominal wall.
They are fixed to the posterior abdominal wall.
Identify each as RETRO, INTRA or SECONDARILY RETROperitoneal.

Jejunum and Ilium
Ascending Colon
Transverse colon
Descending colon
Sigmoid colon
Suprarenal glands
Esophagus RETRO
Stomach INTRA
Jejunum and Ilium INTRA
Appendix INTRA
Transverse Colon INTRA
Descending colon SECONDARILY RETRO
Sigmoid colon INTRA
Rectum RETRO
Kidneys RETRO
Suprarenal glands RETRO
What is the omentum and where does it attach?
A double layer of peritoneum attached to the stomach and proximal part of the duodenum.
What does the lesser omentum attach? WHat are its subdivisions?
Attaches the stomach (along lesser curvature) to liver. It is subdivided into 2 ligaments (hepatogastric and hepato duodenal ligaments).
What does the greater omentum attach? WHat are its subdivisions?
Attaches the stomach (along greater curvature) to the posterior abdominal wall. Subdivided into 3 ligaments (gastrophrenic, gastrosplenic and castro colic ligaments).
What are the peritoneal ligaments?
Double layer ofperitoneum which connect organs to organs or organs to the body wall.
Is the lesser sac behind or in front of the stomach?
Behind the stomach
What runs in the hepatoduodenal ligament?
The hepatic artery, portal vein, and bile duct.
What is found in the hepato renal pouch?
Liver or excess fluid.
On which side of the body is the omental foramen of winslow and which sac does it open into.
It is on the right side of the body and it connecs the greater sac into the lesser sac.
What are the peritoneal folds?
A ridge on the surface of the body wall covered with pareital peritoneum.
What is the origin of the peritoneal folds?
A ridge produced by an underlying vessel, duct or obliterated fetal vessel.
What is found in the lateral umbilical fold?
Inferior epigastric vessels.
WHat is found in the medial umbilical fold?
Obliterated umbilical artery.
What is found in the median umbilical fold?
1 fold only, the uracus or part of the embrological urinary system.
What are peritoneal recesses or fossa?
A pouch of peritoneum formed by peritoneal folds or ligaments.
What are two areas that fluid is likely to drain if a patient is supine?
Hepatorenal pouch superiorly, rectovesical pouch inferiorly.
What are peritoneal gutters? What is their function?
The attachments of the mesentey wall as well as the positions of the ascending and descending colon to the posterior abdominal wall form four gutters that can conduct materials to other regions of the peritoneal cavity.
Which gutters are found in the supracolic compartment?
The hepatorenal pouch
What gutters are found in the infra colic compartment?
Right and left paracolic gutters
And right and left infracolic space or gutter.
What divides the infra from the supra colic compartment?
The transverse colon
What are the 3 branches of the Celiac artery? Give the general direction in which they run.
Left gastric (to the left and superiorly, a smaller vessel), splenic (to the left), and common hepatic (to the right)
What is the major artery in the peritoneum that comes off of the abdominal aorta?
The Celiac artery.
What are the branches of the splenic artery? Give them in the order they branch off
pancreatic, left gastro-omental(gastroepiploic), short gastric.
What are the 2 major branches of the common hepatic artery? Give the one that courses superiorly first.
Proper hepatic and Gastroduodenal.
What are the 3 branches of the Proper hepatic artery? Give the one that courses inferiorly first.
Right gastric, left hepatic, right hepatic
Give the 3 branches of the Gastroduodenal artery. Give them in the order which they branch off.
Supraduodenal artery, Superior pancreaticduodenal artery, Right gastro-omental (gastroepiploic artery).
Which branch of the celiac trunk courses behind the stomach?
The Splenic artery.
What are the branches of the superior mesenteric artery? (5) What is the very first branch? Going clockwise what are the positions and names of the other major arteries?
1) Inferior pancreaticduodenal (1st branch)
2)Ileocolic (6 oclock)
3) Right colic (9 oclock)
4) Middle colic (12 oclock)
5) Intestinal branches.
What is the origin of the superior mesenteric artery?
The abdominal aorta.
What are the marginal arteries of drummond and what is their importance?
Marginal arteries of drummond are physiologically redundant connections to all parts of small and large intestines.
What part of the colon does the right colic artery supply?
The Ascending colon.
What is the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery?
The abdominal aorta.
What are the 3 branches of the inferior mesenteric artery from most superior to inferior.
The 3 branches are the left colic, sigmoidal arteries, and Superior rectal.
Where does the hepatic portal venous system begin and end?
The hepatic portal venous system begins at the venous ends of the capilleries of the organs in the GI tract and ends at the venous sinusoids in the liver.
What forms the portal vein?
The joining of the splenic vein with the superior mesenteric vein. The inferior mesenteric vein usually joins the splenic vein.
What happens during blockage of the portal circulation?
Pressure rises in portal vein causing varicosities.
What are the 4 sites of portal systemic anastomoses where pathology can occur?
Esophageal varicis, hemorrhoids, Caput medusae, Retroperitoneal varices.
What are the portal and systemic veins involved in esophageal varices?
Portal Vein
Esophageal branch of the left gastric

Systemic Vein
Esophageal branches to azygous.
What are the portal and systemic veins involved in Hemorrhoids?
Portal Vein
Superior rectal branch of inferior mesenteric

Systemic Vein
Middle and inferior rectal to internal iliac
What are the portal and systemic veins involved in Caput medusae?
Portal Vein
Paraumbilical (in falciform ligament) branch of portal.

Systemic vein
Superior and inferior epigastric
What are the portal and systemic veins involved in Retroperitoneal varices (veins of Retzius)?
Portal Vein
Colic, duodenal, and pancreatic

Systemic Vein
Lumbar and renal to inferior vena cava