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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a serous membrane
It is a thin layer of mesothelial cells attached to an underlying connective tissue, which is called extraperitoneal CT or subserous fascia
What are the three kinds of serous membranes
Peritoneum - covers abdomen
Pleura - covers lungs
Pericardium - covers heart
Organs and vessels are present inside the peritoneal cavity. T/F
What is present inside the peritoneal cavity
A serous fluid
What is the anterior aspect of the lesser sac
It is the posterior surface of the stomach and lesser omentum
What is the posterior aspect of the lesser sac
It is the pancreas with its visceral peritoneal covering
What is the epiploic foramen
It is an opening through which the geater and lesser sacs are continuous with each other
What is the location of the epiploic foramen
It is just posterior to the free margin of the lesser omentum.
What are the characteristic features of the free margin of the lesser omentum
Landmark for epiploic foramen
Contains the portal triad (common bile duct, hepatic vein, and hepatic artery)
WHat is the location of the free margin
It is on the right side of the lesser omentum between the duodenum and the liver.
What is the difference between the Intraperitoneal organs and the Retroperitoneal organs
Intraperitoneal: organs are almost completely encased with peritoneum
Extraperitoneal: organs are external to the peritoneum and partially covered by it
Name the Intraperitoneal Organs
Stomach, 1st and 4th parts of duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, transverse colon, sigmoid colon, liver, gall bladder, spleen, uterus, ovaries.
Name the Retroperitoneal Organs
Pancreas, 2nd and 3rd parts of the duodenum, aorta, inferior vena cava, kidney, adrenal, ascending and descending colon, rectum, urinary bladder.
What is the Subserous Fascia
It is the layer of fascia where the serous membrane lies. AKA Extraperitoneal CT
Where are the organs and vessels of the abdominal cavity located; Extraperitoneal CT or Peritoneal Cavity
Extraperitoneal CT
What are the three double layers of peritoneum
Peritoneal Ligament
Describe Mesentery
It reflects away from the abdominal wall to enclose part or all of one of the viscera. It is a continuity of the visceral and parietal peritoneum that provides a means for neurovascular communication between the organ and the body wall.
What separates the two layers of peritoneum
Extraperitoneal fascia
Describe Peritoneal Ligament
connects an organ to another organ or to the abdominal wall
Describe Omentum
Sheet of peritoneum passing from the stomach to the another abdominal organ
Describe Greater Omentum
It hangs down from the greater curvature of the stomach and proximal part of the duodenum. Then, it folds back up and attaches to the transverse colon.
DEscribe Lesser Omentum
It goes from lesser curvature of the stomach and first part of the duodenum to the liver.
WHat is One Median Umbilical Fold
It covers the median umbilical ligament which is the remnant of the urachus
What are Two Medial Umbilical Folds
They cover the medial umbilical ligaments which are the remnants of the fetal umbilical arteries
What are Two Lateral Umbilical Folds
They cover the inferior epigastric vessels
What are the four regions of the stomach
Cardiac Region
Body - greater and lesser curvature
Pyloric Region - pyloric antrum, pyloric sphincter, pyloric canal
What does the mucous membrane of the stomach look like
It is highly convoluted and it has gastric folds
What is the Cardiac Orifice
This is the opening from the esophagus allowing food to enter stomach
What is the Pyloric Sphincter
This is the muscle that controls the flow of food bolus from the stomach into the duodenum
What is the Pyloric Orifice
This is the opening to the first part of the duodenum, which is a part of the small intestine
What are the two omenta of the stomach and what are they attached to
Greater Omentum: attaches to greater curvature
Lesser Omentum: attaches to lesser curvature
What are the three parts of the Small Intestine
What is the duodenum and how many parts can it have
It is the first section of the small intestine and it has four parts
The 1st and 4th parts of the duodenum are Retroperitoneal. The 2nd and 3rd parts of the duodenum are Intraperitoneal. TT or TF or FT or FF
1st and 4th are Intraperitoneal while 2nd and 3rd are Retroperitoneal
The 2nd part of the small intestine is ileum. T/F
The 2nd part of the small intestine is jejunum while the 3rd part is ileum. T/F
Jejunum and Ileum are both Retroperitoneal Organs. T/F
What is continuous with the 4th part of the duodenum. Jejunum or Ileum
What is the Ileocecal Junction
This is where the Ileum eventually connects with the Large Intestine
What is the terminal end of the Small Intestine called and what does it connect to in the Large Intestine
Ileum. It connects to the first part of the Large Intestine which is called the Cecum at the Ileocecal Juntion
What are the 6 main segments of the Large Intestine
Sigmoid Colon
Transverse Colon
Ascending Colon
Descending Colon
What are the three landmarks in the Large Intestine
Vermiform Appendix
Right Colic Flexure
Left Colic Flexure
How are large intestines different from small intestines
They are greater in diameter
They have teniae coli
They have haustra
They have appendices epiploicae
What are teniae coli
They are three longitudinal mucle bands except for the rectum
What are haustra
They are small outpouchings of the wall of the large intestines
What are appendices epiploicae
They are small sacs of peritoneum filled with fat
What are the four lobes of the liver
Right Lobe
Left Lobe
Caudal Lobe
Quadrata Lobe
Where is the Caudate Lobe found
On the right side of the IVC
Where is the Quadrata Lobe found
Gallbladder and ligamentum teres
Describe the Porta Hepatis and where is it located
It is the area where structures enter and leave the liver. It is located between the caudate and quadrate lobes
What are the structures that enter and leave the liver
Right and left; hepatic ducts, hepatic arteries, and portal veins.
What is the Falciform Ligament and where is it located
It connects the liver to the anterior abdominal wall. It is located on the anterior surface of the liver
What are ligamentum teres
They are the free border of the falciform ligament
What is the bare area
It is the small area of the liver which is in direct with the diaphragm but is not covered by peritoneum
Which veins carry blood from different segments of the liver and drain directly into the IVC just below the diaphragm
The hepatic veins
Where is bile produced and where is it stored
It is produced in the Liver and it is stored in the Gall Bladder
Pathway of Bile after it is produced in the liver
Bile secreted into,
R and L Hepatic ducts,
These converge to form Common Hepatic Duct,
The unites with Cystic Duct from Gall Bladder to form the Common Bile Duct
What is the other function of the Gall Bladder besides storing Bile
It concentrates the bile by absorbing water and salts
What are the three parts of the Gall Bladder
What is the hepatopancreatic ampulla
This is the union of the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct as the common bile duct enters the second or decending part of the duodenum
Describe the location of the Pancreas
Pancreas are located posterior to the stomach between the duodenum on the right and spleen on the left
What are the exocrine and endocrine secretions of the pancreas and how do they differ from each other
Exocrine Secretions - Pancreatic Juice. Enter Duodenum
Endocrine Secretions - Glucagon and Insulin. Enter Blood
What are the 5 parts of pancreas
Tail - touches spleen
Uncinate Process
What is the Pancreatic Duct
It begins in the tail of the Pancreas, runs through the pancreas to the head, and here merges with the common bile duct forming the hepatopancreatic ampulla
Spleen is what kind of an intraperitoneal organ
mobile lymphatic
The spleen is entirely surrounded by periotneum except at the
Which is the largest (artery) branch off of the Celiac Trunk that heads into the Spleen
Splenic Artery
Which vein comes from the spleen
Splenic Vein
Which Vein carried blood into the Liver and how is it formed
Portal Vein. It is formed when Splenic Vein joins the Superior Mesenteric Vein
What drains into the Splenic Vein
Inferior Mesenteric Vein