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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Diff between true and false aneurysm?
true involves all three layers of arteries; False is adventitia only
Etiologies of vascular aneurysms?
IVCATS - infection, vasculitis, congenital defects, atherosclerosis, trauma, syphilis
Atherosclerotic aortic aneurysms happen most often in what part of the aorta?
abdominal
Complications of atherosclerotic aneurysms?
embolization, branch occlusion
What is the mechanism of aneurysm generation in atherosclerotic aneurysms?
Loss of elastic fibers in the media
Syphilitic aortic aneurysms generally occur in what part of the aorta?
thoracic
How does syphilis cause aneurysms?
causes obliterative endartertitis which causes inflammation of the vasa vasorum, which causes ischemic necrosis of the media, causes roughening of the intima
What valvular anomaly associated with syphilitic aneurysms?
aortic valve regurge
How do aortic dissections occur?
tear develops in intima, then split between mid and outer third of media
Predisposing factors for aortic dissection?
HTN, collagen vascular disease
Biggest danger of aortic dissection?
will rupture through adventitia causing massive hemorrhage; also branch occlusion
Most aortic dissection begin where?
ascending aorta (type A); Type B begins in descending aorta
Causes of vasculitis?
CARIT - caustics, autoimmune, radiation, infection, trauma
Autoimmune vasculitis can be mediated by which mechanisms?
Immune complexes (circulating or formed in situ), pANCa, cANCA, antiendothelial antibodies, Cell mediated immunity;
Vasculitis's caused by immune complexes?
Lupus, hypersensitivity, polyarteritis nodosa
Vasculitis associated with cANCA?
Wegeners granulomatosis
Vasculitis associated with pANCA?
Polyarteritis nodosa
Vasculitis associated with antiendothelial antibodies?
Kawasakis
Classification of arteritis by size of vessel?
Large Vessel (giant cell, takayasu);Medium Vessel (Polyarteritis nodosa, Kawasaki); Small vessel (Microscopic polyangiitis,Wegener granulomatosis)
Etiology of temporal (giant cell arteritis)?
T cell mediated injury
Clinical presentation of someone with temporal arteritis?
headache, visual disturbances, fever, weight loss, swelling over temporal artery
Age and gender of someone with temporal arteritis?
over 50, probably female
Pathology of temporal arteritis?
Granulomatous inflammation, Intimal proliferation with multi nucleated giant cells
Etiology of takayasu arteritis?
unknown
Clinical signs of takayasu?
visual disturbances, weak arm pulses, neurologic signs, HTN
Pathology of takayasu?
Intimal fibrosis of aortic arch and branches (can have granulomas as well)
Age of someone with takayasu?
young, less than 40
Clinical signs of polyarteritis nodosa?
can be acute/chronic or relapsing; HTN, fever, weight loss, abdominal and muscle pain, renal failure, hep B
Pathology of polyarteritis nodosa?
haphazard segmental fibrinoid necrosis with lots of PMNS of the kidney, or liver or heart or GI
Complications of Polyarteritis nodosa?
infarcts, aneurysms, thrombosis
Similarities between PAN and churg strauss (allergic granulomatosis)?
shows pANCA, pattern of fibrinoid necrosis
Diffs between PAN and churg strauss?
CS - asthma, allergic rhinitis, infiltration by eosinophils; Affects lungs then heart then spleen, then per nerves, then skin
Clinical signs of kawasaki disease?
Oral mucosa erythema, lymphadenopathy, erythema of palms and soles
Age of kawasaki disease patients?
infants and children?
Pathology of kawasaki disease?
coronary artery vasculitis
Clinical signs of microscopic polyangiitis?
presence of pANCA, skin rash, involvement of other organs
Pathology of MP?
fibrinoid necrosis of microvasculature with karryorrhexis of PMNs
Clinical signs of Wegeners?
cANCA, sinusitis, pneumonitis, renal failure, glomerulonephritis
Pathology of wegeners?
Necrotizing granulomas with vasculitis in kidneys and entire respiratory tract
Clinical signs of thromboangiitis obliterans?
claudication, ischemic ulcers, gangrene
Age and risk factor of pts with thromboangiitis?
less than 35 years old, smoker
Pathology of thromboangiitis obliterans?
vasculitis with thrombosis, PMNs collects in thrombi