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21 Cards in this Set

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John Newlands
Law of Octaves:

Organized it by atomic mass. Every eighth element had similar properties.
Dimitri Mendeleev/Lothar Meyer
by atomic mass, Mendeleev showed how important the atomic mass was to predict existence of unknown elements.
Henry Mosley
Modern Periodic Table
By atomic number
Valence Electrons
Outer electrons of an atom which are involved in chemical bonding.
analogous valence-electron figurations
elements in the same group of the periodic table.
Which group do the noble gases belong into?
8A
Which group do the alkali metals belong to?
1A
Which group do the alkaline earth metal belong to?
2A
Which group do the halogens belong into?
7A
Isoelectronic Species
have the same number of electrons
atomic radius
is the distance in between the two centers of bonded atoms.
In the periodic table, the lathanides are
the ones with one star
In the periodic table, the actinides are the
ones with two stars.
Ionization Energy
Energy required to move electron from an atom or ion at its gas phase.
When is there a jump in ionization energies?
When you start unraveling the core electrons which are more tight than the valence electrons.
What are the anomalies in the IE trend?
Be B, N O, Mg Al
Electron Affinity
It's the energy required that occurs when an electron is accepted by an atom in the gaseous state.

The more negative the electron affinity the more likely for the atom to accept an electron.
Electronegativity
measure of an element to attract electrons towards itself when bonded to another element.
Electronegative element
attract electron
Electropositive element
releases electron
electron affinity.
Defining first electron affinity

The first electron affinity is the energy released when 1 mole of gaseous atoms each acquire an electron to form 1 mole of gaseous 1- ions.

negative sign shows release in energy