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82 Cards in this Set

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Describe how Mendeleev arranged all the known elements and the pattern he discovered on his periodic table.
**arranged by increasing atomic mass
**discovered that repeating patters of valence numbers arranged in rows of 7, then elements in a column would have the same valence number.
Discuss Henry Mosley's contribution to the modern periodic table.
He decided what an ATOMIC NUMBER was which led to the modern periodic table.
How are elements in the MODERN periodic table arranged?
Arranged by increasing atomic numbers.
State the periodic law.
Physical and Chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic number.
Describe the location of METALS, METALLOIDS, and NON-METALS on the periodic table.
METALS: on the left side of
NON-METALS: are on the right side
METTALOIDS: along the "zig-zag" on the right side
List the PHYSICAL properties of metals and nonmetals.
METALS: good conductors of heat and electricity; shiny; high melting point; ductile; malleable; high melting point.
NON-METALS: poor conductors of heat and electricity; dull; low melting point; many are gases; solids are brittle
Discuss the tendency to GAIN, or LOSE valence electrons in relation to metals and non-metals.
METALS: want to loose their valence electrons
NON-METALS: want to gain valence electrons
Define VALENCE ELECTRONS.
electrons in an atom that are in the outermost energy level.
Descuss how group number (1-2, and 13-18) relates to the number of valence electrons.
FAMILY 1 has 1 valence electron; FAMILY 2 has 2 valence electrons; FAMILY 13 has 3 valence electrons; FAMILY 14 has 4 valence electrons; FAMILY 15 has 5 valence electrons. FAMILY 16 has 6 valence electrons. FAMILY 17 has 7 valence electrons; FAMILY 18 has 8 valence electrons.
Discuss the periodic properties of the elements (density, atomic size, reactivity, valence and metallic properties) from left to right, and from top to bottom.
ATOMIC SIZE: goes large to small moving left to right
VALENCE: goes up one moving left to right for each family
METALLIC PROPERTIES: go more to less moving left to right.
REACTIVITY: increases going up
DENSITY: goes less to more moving left to right.
Name the families going left to right.
Alkali, Alkaline, Boron, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Halogen, Noble (Inert) Gases, in between are the transistion metals, and below are the rare earth metals (lanthanoids and actanoids)
Discuss relative reactivity of families of elements based on their location on the periodic table.
LOWER atomic numbers have more reactivity.
HIGHER atomic numbers will have less reactivity.
List the properties of Alkali Metals.
**atoms have 1 valence electron
**most-active nonmetals.
**soft, silver-white, shiny metals
**are never found free in nature
List the properties of Alkaline Earth Metals
**atoms have 2 valence electrons
**soft, shiny metals
**are never found free in nature
List the properties of the Boron family.
**atoms have 3 valence electrons
**aluminun is in this group
Describe how Mendeleev arranged all the known elements and the pattern he discovered on his periodic table.
**arranged by increasing atomic mass
**discovered that repeating patters of valence numbers arranged in rows of 7, then elements in a column would have the same valence number.
Discuss Henry Mosley's contribution to the modern periodic table.
He decided what an ATOMIC NUMBER was which led to the modern periodic table.
How are elements in the MODERN periodic table arranged?
Arranged by increasing atomic numbers.
State the periodic law.
Physical and Chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic number.
Describe the location of METALS, METALLOIDS, and NON-METALS on the periodic table.
METALS: on the left side of
NON-METALS: are on the right side
METTALOIDS: along the "zig-zag" on the right side
List the PHYSICAL properties of metals and nonmetals.
METALS: good conductors of heat and electricity; shiny; high melting point; ductile; malleable; high melting point.
NON-METALS: poor conductors of heat and electricity; dull; low melting point; many are gases; solids are brittle
Discuss the tendency to GAIN, or LOSE valence electrons in relation to metals and non-metals.
METALS: want to loose their valence electrons
NON-METALS: want to gain valence electrons
Define VALENCE ELECTRONS.
electrons in an atom that are in the outermost energy level.
Descuss how group number (1-2, and 13-18) relates to the number of valence electrons.
FAMILY 1 has 1 valence electron; FAMILY 2 has 2 valence electrons; FAMILY 13 has 3 valence electrons; FAMILY 14 has 4 valence electrons; FAMILY 15 has 5 valence electrons. FAMILY 16 has 6 valence electrons. FAMILY 17 has 7 valence electrons; FAMILY 18 has 8 valence electrons.
Discuss the periodic properties of the elements (density, atomic size, reactivity, valence and metallic properties) from left to right, and from top to bottom.
ATOMIC SIZE: goes large to small moving left to right
VALENCE: goes up one moving left to right for each family
METALLIC PROPERTIES: go more to less moving left to right.
REACTIVITY: increases going up
DENSITY: goes less to more moving left to right.
Name the families going left to right.
Alkali, Alkaline, Boron, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Halogen, Noble (Inert) Gases, in between are the transistion metals, and below are the rare earth metals (lanthanoids and actanoids)
Discuss relative reactivity of families of elements based on their location on the periodic table.
LOWER atomic numbers have more reactivity.
HIGHER atomic numbers will have less reactivity.
List the properties of Alkali Metals.
**atoms have 1 valence electron
**most-active nonmetals.
**soft, silver-white, shiny metals
**are never found free in nature
List the properties of Alkaline Earth Metals
**atoms have 2 valence electrons
**soft, shiny metals
**are never found free in nature
List the properties of the Boron family.
**atoms have 3 valence electrons
**aluminun is in this group
List the properties of the Carbon Family.
**atoms have 4 valence electrons
**an element in it is also called the "basis of life"
List the properties of Nitrogen Family.
**atoms have 5 valence electrons
**most abundant in the earth's atomosphere is in this family
List the properties of the Oxygen Family.
**atoms have 7 valence electrons.
**most active nonmetals
**gain or share 1 valence electron
**never found free in nature
List the propertires of Noble (Inert) Gases.
**do not normally react with other elements.
**atoms have 8 valence electrons
List the uses of Alkali Metals.
medicines, soups, salts, photo cells
List the elements found in the Alkali Metals.
Li (lithium), Na (Sodium), K (potassium), Rb (rubidium), Cs (cesium), Fr (francium)
List the uses for Alkaline Earth Metals.
medicines, electronics, car parts, fireworks, paints, batteries
List the elements found in the Alkaline Earth Metals.
Be (berrylium), Mg (magnesium), Ca (calcium), Sr (strontium), Ba (barium), Ra (radium)
Magnesium is used in _______.
alloys, medicines, flahsbulbs, lightweight and strong
Calcium is ________________.
an abundant essential part of the human body (bones and teeth)
Strontium, barium, and radium are ________________.
radioactive
List the elements found in the Boron Family.
B (boron), Al (aluminum), Ga (gallium), In (indium), T1 (thallium)
Is aluminum a metal or a metalloid?
A metal.
**even though it's position makes it a mettaloid, it is considered a metal
Compounds containing carbon are called what?
Organic Substances
What is the 2nd most abundant element in the earth's crust?
silicon
What are the uses of silicon?
glass, cement, solar cells
Is Germanium a METAL, NON-METAL, or a METALLOID?
mettaloid
Is Tin a METAL, NON-METAL, or a METALLOID?
metal
Tin resists _________________.
corrosion
Lead is ________________.
poisonous.
List the elements that are included in the Carbon family.
C (carbon), Si (silicon), Ge (germanium), Sn (tin), Pb (lead)
List the elements that are included in the Nitrogen Family.
N (nitrogen), P (phopshorus), As (arsenic), Sb (antimony), Bi (bismuth)
Nitrogen and Phosphorus are _____________.
nonmetals.
What are the uses of elements located in the Nitrogen family.
fertilizers, explosions, drugs, dyes, amonia
Phosphorus is ______________.
too active to be found by itself.
Arsenic and Antimony are ____________________.
metalloids.
Bismuth is _______________.
used in alloys.
List the elements that are located in the Oxygen Family.
O (oxygen), S (sulfur), Se (Selenium), Te (tellurium), Po (polonium)
Compounds containing carbon are called what?
Organic Substances
What is the 2nd most abundant element in the earth's crust?
silicon
What are the uses of silicon?
glass, cement, solar cells
Is Germanium a METAL, NON-METAL, or a METALLOID?
mettaloid
Is Tin a METAL, NON-METAL, or a METALLOID?
metal
Tin resists _________________.
corrosion
Lead is ________________.
poisonous.
List the elements that are included in the Carbon family.
C (carbon), Si (silicon), Ge (germanium), Sn (tin), Pb (lead)
List the elements that are included in the Nitrogen Family.
N (nitrogen), P (phopshorus), As (arsenic), Sb (antimony), Bi (bismuth)
Nitrogen and Phosphorus are _____________.
nonmetals.
What are the uses of elements located in the Nitrogen family.
fertilizers, explosions, drugs, dyes, amonia
Phosphorus is ______________.
too active to be found by itself.
Arsenic and Antimony are ____________________.
metalloids.
Bismuth is _______________.
used in alloys.
List the elements that are located in the Oxygen Family.
O (oxygen), S (sulfur), Se (Selenium), Te (tellurium), Po (polonium)
Oxygen, Sulfur, and Selenium are _________________.
non-metals.
Polonium is _____________.
radioactive.
What are the uses of Halogens?
nonstick utensils, prevents tooth decay.
List the elements that are located in the Halogen Family.
F (fluorine), Cl (chlorine), Br (bromine), I (iodine), At (astatine)
List the Noble (Inert) Gases.
He (helium), Ne (neon), Ar (argon), Kr (krypton), Xe (xenon), Rn (radon)
What are the uses of noble gases?
blimps, lights, photographic lamps, radon to treat cancer.
The transition metals are located in groups __-__
3-12.
List some examples of Transistion Metals.
Fe (iron), Co (cobalt), Ni (nickel), Cu (copper), Ag (silver), Au (gold), Zn (zinc), Cd (cadmium), Hg (mercury)
List the properties of transition metals.
**properties are similar to one another.
**less active then alkali and alkaline metals
**many form compounds with oxygen (oxides)
**excellent conductors
**many are hard but some are brittle