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8 Cards in this Set
The comparison between Franklin Roosevelt and Lyndon Johnson:
1) Both presidents take office during critical points in history: Great Depression and Civil Rights Era.
2) FDR wanted to separate himself from Hoover; LBJ wanted a seamless transformation between Kennedy and himself.
3) FDR pushed his New Deal policies: CCC’s, Bank regulation, and Social Security; LBJ pushed his Great Society: Medicare/Medicaid, Headstart, Civil Rights
4) FDR’s programs helped the middle class and poor, but mostly the middle class; LBJ’s programs helped the middle class and poor, but mostly the poor.
5) FDR was a forceful legislator, but great innovator/overseer; LBJ was a great legislator, but a horrible innovator/overseer.
6) Both presidents took on massive problems and met them with success, the Great Depression by FDR and getting people employed and the War on Poverty and LBJ’s passing of Civil Rights legislation that could only have been passed by a great legislator who was talented and was respected by Congress.
7) FDR was a reconstructive president, starting his own regime and leading by definition; LBJ was an affiliated president, he was an orthodox innovator and tried to continue many New Deal policies.
8) Both presidents, while in good times, were liked by Americans who elected them in near-record numbers.
9) FDR will forever be known as a great president, LBJ would have if he hadn’t have had Vietnam; he was not an astute manager.
The comparison between Franklin Roosevelt and Dwight Eisenhower:
1) Both presidents take office after administrations with very low approval ratings, and Americans looked to these two presidents for assistance.
2) FDR was a man of domestic policy; IKE was a man of foreign policy
3) FDR was a reconstructive president, and started the New Deal; FDR was a preemptive president and preserved the New Deal and did not want to upset the Democratic Congress (just because a party is out of the presidency does not mean they cannot still control government; that is why IKE is a preemptive president).
4) FDR was a very public president and attacked aggressively in the public eye; IKE was more private and used the ‘Hidden Hand’ to attack McCarthy.
5) FDR is seen as the Moses of the Depression; IKE is seen as the Moses of Korea.
6) FDR was free to dominate Congress, domestic/foreign policy; IKE had to follow New Deal policies domestically, he chose to obey the Truman doctrine, and Congress was dominated by the Democrats
7) FDR and IKE both increased their parties power in Congress
8) The presidency of IKE is much different than FDR’s; IKE had many different bureaus: NSC: foreign policy; BoB: Congressional Budget; CEA: State of the Economy
9) Both presidencies used Brain Trusts and used their cabinet for new policies and ideas.
The comparison between Dwight Eisenhower and George Bush:
1) IKE was very moderate, GWB is conservative
2) IKE was a preemptive president who had to follow New Deal techniques; GWB is an affiliated president who follows Reagonomics
3) IKE fought the Cold War; GWB fights the War on Terror
4) IKE wanted to pull out of Korea and was passive; GWB wanted to go into Iraq and is aggressive
5) IKE used his cabinet; GWB is a ‘leader by definition’
6) IKE’s forte was foreign affairs; GWB’s was domestic policy
7) IKE was careful not to anger Democrats, used Chief of State role, and was above partisanship; GWB does what he wants even with a split Congress and polarizes the country
Dwight Eisenhower’s leadership style:
1) IKE was a preemptive president; therefore he could not anger the Democratic majority
2) IKE focused on foreign affairs, he was head of NATO, a general, and an American hero; he was not a politician or an expert in domestic policy.
3) IKE knew people loved the New Deal, so he had to preserve it to appease America
4) He had to be talked into running for president, did so as a moderate, and did not see himself as a Republican or a Democrat necessarily, but as the Chief of State who was above partisanship
5) Used the hidden hand to take people down, instead of being very public
6) Was run by ‘Citizens for IKE’ with an ‘I like IKE’ mentality, was very moderate and spoke for the everyday American
7) Followed the Truman Doctrine by using containment and got America out of Korea quickly
8) Used cabinet as a sounding board
9) Had a much larger and complex government, a larger EOP with many different bureaus: NSC: foreign policy; BoB: Congressional Budget; CEA: State of the Economy
The Inaugural Addresses of selected presidents:
1) A preemptive president who needed to follow the Truman Doctrine and contain communism, not combat it.
2) Explained that his forte was foreign affairs and refused to address domestic policies in his address; knew that he had to follow New Deal policies
1) Used his Inaugural Address to make it clear that he was to defend the Constitution, and not take away slavery
2) Did his best to use the public as his jury and not offend the South, which made his speech very passive-aggressive
1) Used his Inaugural Address to provide hope to the American people without being specific to any social programs
2) Makes himself sound like a Biblical figure, ‘money changers have fled’, ‘nothing to fear but fear itself’
Lyndon Johnson and his role in Civil Rights:
1) The first domino to wall was Brown v. Board (1955)
2) 1964 Civil Rights Act eliminated segregation under the Commerce Clause
3) It is strange for LBJ to take on this subject, being a southern Democrat, but he chose to and used his ability as a great legislator to pass the 1964 Civil Rights Act and 1965 Voter Right’s Act
4) Continued Kennedy’s small push for Civil Rights and expanded it
5) This was with LBJ’S first major commitment, the War on Poverty, which expanded many New Deal programs to focus on those who were impoverished and gave them economic security
6) The War on Poverty continued LBJ’s consistent importance to domestic policy
7) Would have been considered a great president if the basis was simply domestic policy
Franklin Roosevelt and Court Packing:
1) The Supreme Court began striking down New Deal legislation
2) FDR said that if a Justice was 75+ another Justice would be appointed, he does this to make the Court more liberal and he felt he should get the privilege to appoint
3) SC kept saying that things were unconstitutional
4) American people and Democratic Congress were uneasy on ‘Court Packing’
5) FDR felt he could do this because of the 1936 mandate
6) A Justice ends up switching from conservative to moderate to liberal so New Deal legislation was then considered constitutional
7) It turns out that soon many of those older judges left or died
Describe Vietnam and Lyndon Johnson’s role in the matter:
1) LBJ’s continuation of the Truman Doctrine
2) Continuation of a minor plan of JFK’s
3) LBJ tried to balance domestic policy while having this enormous foreign policy issue on his plate; the balance between the two failed, he needed to put more emphasis on foreign policy
4) In 1964 basically no one was in Vietnam, in 1968 500,000, yet there was still no declaration of war
5) Gulf on Tonkin resolution gave him basically a blank check
6) 1964 election Goldwater seems aggressive for waiting to take down communists; LBJ does not speak out on the war
7) Would have been the greatest president ever without Vietnam