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155 Cards in this Set

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The point above which a stimulus is perceived and below which it is not perceived is called a stimulus
threshold
Who initially discovered the idea of the absolute threshold?
Fechner
A stimulus that is detected less than 50% of the time is called a(n) ________ stimulus
subliminal
Lori is participating in a hearing experiment. The researcher presents her with a series of 7 tones, ranging from very quiet to very loud. Over the course of ten trials, Lori can hear Tone #5 every time. However, she only hears Tone #4 during two of the ten trials. For Lori, Tone #4 represents a(n):
subliminal stimulus
At high stimulus intensities, it takes _____ changes in order to detect a JND between two stimuli.
large
_____ areas in the brain change sensations to perceptions.
Association
Gestalt psychologists explain perceptions based on the principles of organization which are rules that specify how
our brains organize sensations into perceptions
The rules of organization such as figure-ground and closure were developed by the _________ to describe how we perceive
Gestalt psychologists
The principle of closure states that:
we tend to fill in missing parts of a figure
If you see two people walking and holding hands, you perceive that they are a couple because of the Gestalt principle of:
proximity
What are the three dimensions that our visual system allows us to perceive? Of the three, which one is added by our visual system?
depth, width, height-depth
Imagine that you are looking at a baseball coming toward you. The farther away you perceive the object to be, the:
the smaller the retinal disparity
As you look down the street, you see an apartment building partially overlapping an office building. Based on the depth cue of _____, you know that the apartment building is closer to you.
interposition
If two objects are the same size, yet one appears to be larger, you make the assumption that that object is closer. Why?
relative size
Which depth cues involves objects in motion?
motion parallax
Based on your study of illusions, which of the following best describes perception
active
You want to learn more about holistic thinking. Based on the study described in Module Six, which culture would you want to visit?
China
A subject has been exposed to three lights flashing in rapid succession every thirty seconds. After many of these trials, the experimenter has two of them flash. If the subject, in error, reports seeing three lights flash for this trial, it is probably because of:
perceptual set
If someone reportedly has precognition, then they supposedly have the ability to:
foretell events before they happen
Out of 12 alleged psychics who have accepted James Randi's $100,000 challenge, how many have successfully demonstrated their psychic ability?
0
Traffic arrows composed of flashing lights are an example of:
phi movement
Our first impression of other people is influenced by:
facial features
A quality inspector at the local manufacturing plant carefully examines a product for flaws using a special light. The flaws show up as dark green spots of light. For this inspector, the _________ is the point at which a flaw can be detected.
threshold
The level at which a stimulus is detected more than 50% of the time is called the
absolute threshold
A subliminal stimulus is one that has:
less than 50% chance of being detected
The smallest increase or decrease in the intensity of a stimulus that a person is able to detect is called a(n):
JND
Traffic arrows composed of flashing lights are an example of:
phi movement
The proportioned increase in the intensity of a stimulus needed to produce a just noticeable difference is called:
Weber's Law
The transformation of sensations into a meaningful perception
is an unconsious instantaneous process
Based upon your understanding of perception and factors that can influence it, which saying is the most appropriate to describe perception?
Different strokes for different folks
Looking up at the blue sky, Matt imagined that he saw the clouds as animal shapes. Viewing clouds against the sky is an example of which principle of perceptual organization?
figure and ground
A skywriter is writing the words "VOTE FOR JOHNSON" in the bluesky above a football stadium during a game. However, his emission system becomes clogged so that only parts of the letters appear. Johnson tells him not to worry, the crowd will perceive his message by using:
closure
The Gestalt rule of _________ states that we tend to organize stimuli in the most basic way possible.
simplicity
Because the eyes are separated by several inches, each eye receives a slightly different image. This is called
retinal disparity
In a sketch of the New York downtown area, Vincent creates a feeling of depth by drawing skyscrapers so that they partially overlap. The cue for depth he is using is known as:
interposition
Which cue for depth relies on the fact that dust, smog, or water vapor give distant objects a hazy look?
atmospheric perspective
An illusion is a distorted perception of what?
reality
______ cues make the moon on the horizon look larger because it appears ______.
distance, farther away
The key idea in perceptual set is:
expectation
The ability to see things that are not actually present is called:
clairvoyance
Professor Ibanez wishes to scientifically study ESP. Which is the most preferred method for study?
Ganzfeld procedure
The fact that our first impressions of people are influenced by their facial features, hairstyles, and skin color suggest that perceptions are:
interpretations
In order to answer the question, "At what point are you aware of a stimulus?" one should measure the:
absolute threshold
The just noticeable difference serves as the foundation for:
Weber's Law
An orange blob is to a tiger as sensation is to ________.
perception
In constructing a perception, sense organs:
transform energy into electrical signals
The perceptual rule that makes important things stand out is called:
figure-ground
A famous artist has made a name for herself by the way she leaves objects in paintings incompletely drawn. Yet when we look at her works, we perceive the complete objects. What organizational rule of perception is occurring?
closure
We tend to perceive complex figures as divided into several simple figures. Why?
simplicity rule
What term describes our tendency to perceive sizes, shapes, and colors as remaining the same even though their physical characteristics keep changing?
perceptual constancy
We are able see in three dimensions. What are the three dimensions?
depth, width, height
How could a cyclops land an airplane?
Rely on monocular cues
The convergence of parallel lines, giving the feeling of distance, is called:
linear perspective
The depth cues of light and shadow make brightly-lit objects appear ___ while objects in the shadows are perceived to be _______.
closer; farther away
A famous painter used dust and clouds to created a depth cue in her paintings. She used _______ as a depth cue.
atmospheric perspective
Illusions demonstrate what happens to our perceptual processes when:
perceptual cues are distorted
With regard to the moon illusion, people tend to perceive an elevated moon to be ________ compared to the horizon moon
closer
Should you scrap the Study Guide and buy a subliminal message tape? Research suggest that any improvement you get with those tapes is probably due to:
a self-fulfilling prophecy
Based on research, subliminal messages can:
influence emotional and cognitive processes
Lois tells her friend Karl to always type class assignments on an expensive typewriter because instructors are less likely to spot errors on an official-looking page. Lois's advice relies on
perceptual set
The group of psychic experiences that involve perceiving or sending information outside normal sensory process is called
extrasensory perception
Julia says that she can see objects that no one else can see. This is an example of:
clairvoyance
The _________ procedure is used to test for telepathic communication and was used by Bem and Honorton in their study.
Ganfeld
In animated cartoons, movement is created by the rapid presentation of still images. This movement is known as:
apparent motion
As part of a psychology experiment, Linda sits in a small, completely darkened room and looks through an apparatus. At the sound of a tone, she is exposed to a brief flash of light. These lights vary in intensity. After each tone, she reports whether she saw the flash. The intensity of light that Linda perceives 50 percent of the time is her:
absolute threshold
Doctors fail to detect about ____ of tumors on mammograms.
10%
Fechner is to Weber as ________ is to just noticeable difference
absolute threshold
The first awareness of some outside stimulus is called a(n):
sensation
Sensation is to ________ as perception is to ________.
meaningless; meaningful
When listening to music, the experience of hearing each individual note would be a __________, while interpreting the meaning of each note is an example of __________.
sensation; perception
Structuralism is to Gestalt as ______ is to _______.
addition; rules
The ability to separate figure from ground is:
innate
The principle of proximity states that:
we tend to group together objects that are close to each other physically
The principle of continuity states that:
we organize forms along a smooth line or path
You see a friend down the street. The visual image you receive is of a person who is the size of a doll, yet you know your friend hasn't shrunk since you last saw him. This is due to which of the following?
size constancy
The muscles that move the entire eye give cues to depth through:
convergence
The advantage to the human species of having two eyes is:
retinal disparity
A person who is blind in one eye uses more ________ cues than ___________ cues
monocular; binocular
If you are looking at a lighthouse in the fog, the lighthouse will appear farther away than it really is because of a monocular depth cue called:
atmospheric perspective
The brain transforms the speed of moving objects into indicators of distance because of a depth cue called:
motion parallax
Why didn't Congress make subliminal advertising illegal?
it's ineffective
The example presented in your textbook about assuming that a body-builder is a large man, but in fact, he a small man, represents the influence of:
perceptual set
Herb claims that he can read other people's thoughts. This ability is called:
telepathy
Felipe claims to be able to move objects simply by concentrating on them. This psychic ability is known as:
psychokinesis
The illusion of lights moving that are actually stationary is called:
phi movement
A computer-generated illusionary experience is called:
virtual reality
An absolute threshold is the intensity level that you detect ?
50% of the time
Dr. Wilson is reading a mammogram. She knows that one way to increase the accuracy of the mammogram is to:
ask another Dr to read it, too
Danny is taking a shower. After ten minutes in the shower, the hot water runs out. The point at which Danny can tell that the water is getting cold represents his:
JND
At low stimulus intensities, it takes _____ changes in order to detect a JND between two stimuli.
small
A three-month-old child is being prepared to get a shot at a health clinic. She detects the needle just as a long line and does not react to it or interpret it. To her it is just a long line and nothing more. This is an example of:
sensation
Perception is best defined as the:
combination and interpretation of sensations
Omar and Heidi look at a beautiful flower. Omar sees it as a Grand Lady Hybrid Strain X-6. This illustrates:
how perceptions are personalized interpretations
Professor Karweick walks into her filled classroom, immediately perceiving students as sitting in rows rather than in a haphazard fashion. This is similar to what principle of perceptual organization?
similarity
At her high school dance, Rhonda perceives her fellow students as small groups of people talking to one another rather than as a large mass of people filling the gym. This situation is similar to what principle of perceptual organization?
proximity
Mark is coming in for a night landing in his twin-engine plane. He sees blue lights on the ground before him. Mark perceives this to be the outline of the runway. What principle of perceptual organization is he most likely using?
continuity
Diane and Debbie are at an outdoor circus. Their father has purchased each a helium balloon. Debbie accidentally lets go of her balloon and it floats farther and farther away. The balloon appears to becoming smaller and smaller. Both Diane and Debbie believe that the balloon remains the same size. Their perception is best explained by:
size constancy
A green car looks like a green car, regardless of whether it is dawn or dusk, because of:
color constancy
Which depth cue is based on the muscles of the eye providing information?
convergence
If one object partially overlaps another object, the partially overlapping object will appear closer because of the ________ depth cue.
interposition
To show a set of railroad tracks moving off into the distance, an artist paints the tracks so that the rails converge. This depth cue is known as:
linear perspective
The light and shadow depth cue gives objects a?
3 dimensional look
According to motion parallax, near objects appear ________, whereas objects in the distance appear _________.
to move quickly, to move slowly
Impossible figures seem impossible because our previous experience with line drawings leads us to interpret figures as:
three dimensional
The study on subliminal messages cited in your textbook suggests that among the subjects, 50% reported improvements in memory or self-esteem. The type of improvement, memory or self-esteem, was determined by
the title of the tape not content!
In the past, Burmese women were considered attractive if they had exceptionall
long necks
Marta sets up a booth at a local fair and claims she can tell the future by looking at a person's palm. She is claiming to have which of the following abilities?
precognition
You are at a movie theater and you mentally will your popcorn to rise out of your hands and float through the air, and it does! You have just experienced the phenomenon of :
psychokinesis
How do researchers evaluate testimonials of psi phenomenon?
reject-too prone to bias
As you look at a series of still pictures presented at about 24 frames per second, you perceive motion. Which of the following allows you to fill in between the images?
closure
According to the textbook, a promising use of virtual reality is to:
treat phobias like a fear of spiders
The smallest increase or decrease in the intensity of a stimulus that a person can detect is called a
JND
The increase in intensity of a stimulus needed to produce a JND grows in proportion to the intensity of the initial stimulus; this is called
Weber's Law
Our first awareness of sensory information, in the form of meaningless bits of info, is called a
sensation
When many bits of sensory info have been assembled into a meaningful image, it is called a ____which can be biased or distorted by our unique set of experiences
perception
Early Psychologists discovered a set of rules or principles that our brains use to automatically group or arrange stimuli into perceptual experiences. These early researchers who were called______psychologists, disagreed with other early psychologists who were called_____
Gestalt, Structuralists
You automatically separate an image into a more dominant, detailed figure and a less detailed background according to the
figure-ground rule
You fill in the missing parts to form a complete image as a result of the _______rule
closure
Although physical qualities of stimuli may change, you may perceive them as remaining the same because of
perceptual constancy
AS a car drives away, its image on your retina becomes smaller but you know that the car does not shrink because of
size constancy
When you close a door, its shape on your retina changes from a rectangle to a trapezoid, but you perceive the door as remaining the same due to
shape constancy
If you had a bright red car, it would appear red in bright light and still appear to be red in dimmer light because of
color constancy
Cues for depth perception that depend on both eyes are called
binocular cues
Cues for depth perception that depend on a single eye are called
monocular cues
The binocular cue that occurs when your eyes move inward to track a fly landing on your nose is called
convergence
The binocular cue that occurs when each eye receives a slightly different image is called
retinal disparity
Monocular cues for depth perception include; cues from overlapping objects called
interposition
Monocular cues from two parallel lines converging are called
linear perspective
Monocular cues from the presence of dust and smog are called
atmospheric perspective
Monocular cues from larger and smaller images are called
relative size
Monocular cues for depth perception included cues from nearer and farther objects moving at different speeds called
motion parallax
If perceptual cues are so changed that our brains can no longer interpret them correctly, we perceive a distorted image of reality called an
illusion
Such a distorted perception illustrates that perception is an active process and that we rely on previous______when perceiving new situations
experiences
What are the 3 basic questions psychologists ask about perception
What point are we aware of a stimulus?
What point do we know a stimulus intensity has increased or decreased?
How are meaningless sensations combined into meaningful perceptions?
The intensity level at which a person has a 50% chance of perceiving the stimulus is called the
absolute threshold
Measuring the smallest increase or decrease in stimulus intensity that a person can detect is called a
JND
Experiences that are typcial of a society and shared by its members are called
cultural influences
The intensity level at which a person has a 50% chance of perceiving the stimulus is called the
absolute threshold
Because of cultural influences, Americans tend to engage more in _____thinking while Easterners engage more in_______thinking
analytical,holistic
The perception and transmission of thoughts or images by other than normal sensory channels are referred to as psychic experiences or
PSI phenomena
ESP which stands for ______includes four psychic abilities
extrasensory perception
The ability to transfer one's thoughts to another or read another's thoughts is called
telepathy
The ability to foretell events is called
precognition
The ability to perceive events or objects that are out of sight is called
clairvoyance
The ability to move objects without touching them is called
psychokinesis
Two reasons many researchers are skeptical of psychic abilities is that some supposedly psychic phenomena were actually accomplished with________and some previous studies that supported ESP had questionable__________
trickery
methodology
Although a recent study supported the occurence of psi phenomena, many researchers are waiting for these positive results to be __
replicated
When you view objects moving in space, it is called
real motion
When you view images of stationary objects that are presented in a rapid sequence, it is called______motion which is the basic principle used to create movies
apparent
The illusion that stationary lights are moving can be traced to the work of ______who called this phenomenon_____movement
Max Wertheimer
phi
A perceptual experience that is created by allowing the viewer to enter and participate in computer-generated images is called_______; it breaks down some of the traditional boundaries between reality and fantasy.
virtual reality
Stimuli when organized in the most basic, elementary way is called
simplicity
stimuli that appear the same tend to be grouped together are called
similarity
Stimuli that are near one another tend to be grouped together, this is called
proximity
Stimuli that are arranged in a smooth line or curve tend to be perceived as forming a continuous path, this is the ____rule
continuity