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91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
System of beliefs and thoughts that shape us. Culture is learned. We aquire customs and other habits.
To think that your culture is better or more right than another culture.
Relating to or concerned with wholes or with complete systems rather than with the analysis of, treatment of, or dissection into parts.
Having originated in and being produced, growing, living, or occurring naturally in a particular region or environment. <indigenous plants> <the indigenous culture>
of, relating to, or dealing with phenomena (as of language or culture) as they occur or change over a period of time
Cultural Relativism
You cannot understand one thing in a culture and what it means unless you learn about the whole culture.
the process by which an individual learns the traditional content of a culture and assimilates its practices and values
the way in which linguistic elements (as words) are put together to form constituents (as phrases or clauses)
A written material about a culture.
Provides concepts and unstated assumptions
An explanation of the way things are
An explanation of the past. How things came to be.
Explicit vs. Tacit culture
Explicit are cultural traits readily there for others to understand. Ex. certain dress

Tacit culture are the things that are not easily understood. Ex. How close you stand when you talk to someone.
the study of meaning. what do activites, belongings, and realtionships mean to them. Ex. Marriage means different things to different people.
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
Does language affect your worldview?
Body Art
A way to outwardly express yourself. It can send off different meanings.

It is differernt than body markings. Body markings have been placed on you against your will.
Subsistence Stratigies
2 forms of subsistence
1. Food collection
2. Food production

3 characteristics
1. Division of labor
2. Patterns of cooperation
3. Rights to resources
Done in areas where agricutlure isnt easily done. They let animals convert the uneatble food into something they can eat.The meat is rarely eating. They are used for their milk, hair, and blood.
Looking at seeds. By looking at the seeds you can see whay type of plant it is.
Chracterized by lack of sophisticated tools. Growing your own food makes the abundance bigger which creates a bigger carrying capacity and more people are able to live off the land and crops are more stable.
Swidden/Slash and burn agriculture
Cutting down and burning trees which fertilizes the land. They grow their crops there and then move onto the next area. This is called sustainable agriculture. Overtime the land will not grow back like it used to. It begins to deplete food supply and lessens your mobility.
Diseases that animals carry that are passed onto humans
Commercial Agriculture
"The Green Revolution".Began with chemistry. Started creating fertilizer which helped increase the output of the land.
Highly complex and based on market economies. Based on mass production of goods and consumerism. Builds social systems that are highly valuable. An unegual distribtion of wealth occurs. Based on the exchange of goods.
Division of labor is by gender. You begin to see inequality. Someone might have better land than you. You have smaller plots and put more work into it.The work time increases and you also begin to see new cooking methods.
earliest form of exchange. Goods or services are echanged. Money is not involved. There are 3 different types
General Reciprocity
Giving of goods or services without the expectation or return of equal value or any given time. Most common between friends and relatives.
Balance Reciprocity
There is the expectation that you will get equal value back with in a given time.
Negative Reciprocity
Trying to get more from someone than they can give you.
Ex. Potlatch
Will try to give more to you than you gave to them. They gain prestige through this. You are essentially trying to one up someone.
Goods and services are given to authorities and distributed out among society. Not neccesairly done evenly.
Ex. taxes
Required contribtuion of products. Labor is also a way to do so.
Form of market exchange. You try to get the price down. It is expected and common in some societies.
A medium of echange with a set value. Limited use. Must be contolable, divisable, and portable.
Market Economy
Creates a surplus of things. Produces things you may not want or need. Specilization also occurs and you can only do certain jobs. Highly susceptible to outside force.
Shadow economy
Market economy that is illeal.
Ex. drugs in Bolivia or New York City
How you are realted to people. Very important in society.
There are 3 different kinds
Consanguinial Kinship
Related by a direct descent
Affinal Kinship
Related to you by marriage
Fictive Kinship
People who aren't related to you by others. They are good friends.
Category with in kin that notes a common ancestor.
The person who the whole kinship chart is drawn around.
Sets of lineages that are related to eachother by common descent.
A series of clans that are realted through a common ancestor.
Splitting a culture in half.
Couples live together in a new home.
Ex. couples in america
The couple lives near the grooms parents
the couple live near the brides parents
The couple lives wherever they want
The bride and groom each stay living in the houses that they grew up in.
The couple moves near the Grooms uncle's home. The mothers, brothers home.
Uterine Family
The mothers children.
Ex. The women in China
They have to move into their husbands house with his family and they are an outsider. When they have children they become her family.
If a husband dies, the widow is married to a male relative of her deceased husband.
If a wife dies, the widowed man is married to a female relative of his deceased wife.
Incest Taboo
Every culture has one. Some people are considered to closely realted to you to have sexual realtions with. The level of incest is different in all socities though. The purpose is to also allow you to widen your kin group.
You have to chose a mate outside of a certain group.
ex. family, clan, moeity
You have to marry within a certain group.
ex. Race, class, religion
Marriage between 2 individuals. The most common type of marriage but not the moast favored.
You are allowed to have more than one spouse at a time.
You are allowed to have more than one wife at a time. The most prefered form of polygamy
When a woman is allowed more than one husband at a time. Very rare. It helps in lowering reproduction rates and allows you to keep your land and pass it down and split up household chores.
Group Marriage
Not a regualr feature of any known current society. Nyar practiced it. The age groups would all marry eachother and they were allowed to have sexual realtions with whomever in the group of people they were married to. This is also a natolocal way of life. You live where you were born
Same sex marriage
In the US this type of marriage is strongly related to sexuality but in most cultures it is not that way at all.
(2 spirits) A 3rd gender. Biologically male. This is mostly done by native americans. They have recoginzed jobs in society. It is known as gender. Sometimes they will even dress up in womens clothes. People believe they can tap into a place most people cant. A man might take a berdache as a 2nd wife.
Mongongo Nut
An abundant nut that is available year round and is a major staple in the
!Kung diet. The fruit is also eaten. Very important to the !Kung
The area technically refers to an expanpse exsisiting in both Botswana and Namibia
The custom of giving and recieving gifts with designated exchange partners, which forms an elaborate network central to economic life. Gifts are not exchanged simultaneously. There is a delay in the return.
A large cover made from the hide of an antelope. Most substantial piece of clothing, it is worn almost exclusivly by women. Is used to carry ostrich water shells, to carry children, and to offer a covering for the body, and to carry gathered food.
The name of a language and people. They occupy an area covering northeastern Namibia, northwestern Botswana, and southeastern Angola.
Bantu- speaking pastoralists who predominated in Namibia before the turn of the century. Nearly exterminated in 1904 and survivors fled to Botswana.
Bantu speaking people, the pre-dominant tribal group of Botswana and are settled all over the country
a group of individuals tracing descent from a common ancestor; especially : such a group of persons whose common ancestor is regarded as its founder
relating to, based on, or tracing descent through the paternal line
relating to, based on, or tracing descent through the maternal line
Tracing descent from both mother and father
Parallel Cousins
Children of same sex siblings of your parents.
ex. Your mothers sisters children
Your fathers brothers children
Cross Cousins
Children of opposite sex of your parents.
ex. Your mothers brothers children
Your brothers sisters children
to wander in search of food
any of the abstract units of the phonetic system of a language that correspond to a set of similar speech sounds (as the velar \k\ of cool and the palatal \k\ of keel) which are perceived to be a single distinctive sound in the language
a distinctive collocation of phonemes (as the free form pin or the bound form -s of pins) having no smaller meaningful parts
Franz Boas
Grew up in Germany. Wrote for a German paper. He discovered the environment was not the only thing that determined culture. He studied the Kwakiutl. He was a teacher and taught student the importance of field work. Studied scientific and linguistic cultures. The 1st to use key informants.
A native american group that was studied by Franz Boas.
Edward Tylor
Father of British anthropology. He came up with the definition of culture used today. He believed science would triumpg religion.
Lewis Henry Morgan
American lawyer and also became a US senator. Famous for studying kinships. He worked hard to outlaw cousin marriage. He came up with 3 broag stages of culture: 1) savagery 2) barbarian 3) civilization
Symbolic interactionism
People act towards things based on their meanings.
An arbitrary devcie used to communicate abstract ideas.
Herbert Spencer
He lived from (1820-1903)
He believed society was similar to a living organism. Just as organs of the body make specialized contributions, the various segments of society are interdependent. A proponent of Social Darwinism
Cultural behavior
(look back in CC)
The way people act and react to the world around them.
Cultural Artifacts
(look back in CC)
The things we use.
Cultural knowledge
(look back in CC)
Things that your culture knows.
Ex. A book. You know what someoneis doin when you see them with a book.
Naive Realism
The belief that your culture mirrors all others.