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50 Cards in this Set

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ethology
the study of behavior
Charles Darwin (1809 - 1882) is most know for what?
theory of evolution, wrote "On the Origin of Species", Classical ethology
Classical ethology
much of what animals know is instinctive or innate
behvior modification programs
training courses that use rewards and reprimands to stimulate changes in behvior
behaviorism
the ethological approach that states behavior is learned rather than genetically programmed
breaking litter box training
when a cat urinates or defecates someplace other than its litterbox
conditioned stimulus
sensory input unrelated to a simple reflex behavior
dance
a complex pattern of movements performed by a bee that directs other bees to a food source
evolution
the scientific theory that characterizes all related organisms as decended from common ancestors
fixed action patterns
a term used by early ethologists to describe stereotypical or predictable behaviors of a species
fixed action patterns
a term used by early ethologists to describe stereotypical or predicatable behviors of a species
function
in ethological terms, survival value
habituation
the process of learning that certain objects and events have little bearing on survival and can thus be ignored
house soiling
urinating or defecating inside the home
imprinting
the acquisition in the very young of certain fixed action patterns
innate
instinctive
instrumental learning
learning by trial and error
natural selection
the process that awards survival and reproductive success to individuals and groups best adjusted to their environment
naturalists
natural scientists
nature-nurture controversy
the crux of two opposing schools: classical ethology, which view animal behvior as primarily instinctive, and animal psychology, which views animal behvior as primarily learned
operant conditioning
the type of conditioned learning that associates a certain activity, know as the operant, with punishment or reward
operant
functioning or tending to produce effects
postparturition
after giving birth to offspring
recognition of individuals
the process that allows animals to distinguish their place in a social context broader than their relationship with primary caregivers
sensitive period
a specific stage early in an animals life when imprinting occurs
social behavior
the ways individual members of the same species interact with one another
socialization
the process of adapting to contact with others
sociobiology
the study of the biological bases of social behvior
spraying
staining vertical surfaces with a strong smelling urine
stimulus-response theory
the psychological school of thought stating that all complex forms of behavior including emotions, thoughts, and habits, are complex muscular and glandular responses that can be observed and measured.
territorial
prone to defining and defending areas of sleep, eating, exercise, and play
unconditioned response
a simple reflex behavior
unconditioned stimulus
sensory input that produces a simple reflex behavior
wobble
a training maneuver designed to disorient a bird by abruptly dropping the hand it's perched upon.
The four essential aspects of successful training are:
reward, reprimand, trust, and consistancy
According to Charles Dawin, what biological mechanism allows members of the same species respond appropriately to various conditions in the natural world?
Instinct
The process by which an animal becomes accustomed to its situation is referred to as flooding or?
habituation
What do we call an immediate pleasant occurrence that follows a behavior?
positive reinforcement
Animal behavior researchers often refer to an activity associated with punishment or reward as a/an
operant
Until approximately what age does the sensitive period last among cats and dogs?
12 weeks
The most commonly reported behavior problem in cats is
breaking litter box training
Which of the following theories asserts that all animal activity is learned, rather than genetically programmed?
behaviorism
The most common form of aggression seen in animal hospitals is
fear-induced
the point of a reprimand is to _________ an animal.
starle
Upon reaching secual maturity, male dogs and cats may mark their territory through
spraying
Which of the following are considered the most effective types of reward?
food and praise
We commonly refer to early bonding with an object or animal as?
imprinting
The most effective way to minimize spraying is
neutering
Pharmaceutical therapy for behavior modification can cause
increased blood glucose
learning through trial and error is often referred to as
insttrumental