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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
are the ureters intraperitoneal or retroperitoneal?
retroperiteoneal
describe how the ureters enter the pelvis?
cross over the pelvic brim
cross anterior to bifurcation of the common iliac arteries
how do the ureters enter the bladder
obliquely, posteriorly, have long intramural passage
what crosses the ureter in males in the pelvis?
the ductus deferens
what crosses the ureter in females?
the uterine artery
what is the arterial supply of the ureter?
common iliac, internal iliac, ovarian arteries
what is the lymphatic drainage of the ureter
common and internal iliac nodes
where is the empty bladder located?
in the true pelvis
what separates the bladder from the pubic bones ?
the retropubic space
what happens as the bladder fills?
extends up into greater pelvis through extraperitoneal fascia as far as umbilicus
what is the superior surface of the bladder level with?
the pubic symphysis
what is the apex of the bladder?
poits fowards
what is the fundus of the bladder`
points posteriorly
what is the neck of the bladder
points downwards
what forms the bladder bed?
the pubic bones, the fascia covering levator ani
what is betwen the fundus of the bladder and the rectum ?
centrally: the rectovesical septum
laterally, the ampullae of the rectum and the seminal glands
what is the muscle called inside the bladder?
the detrusor muscle
what part of the bladder is covered by peritoneum?
the superior surface
describe the internal urethral sphincter
only in males
convergence of fibres of detrusor muscle around interna urethral orifice
what is the trigone?
triangular part of base of bladder formed by uretric and urethral orifices
anchors bladder, does not expand
what is the internal urethral orifice innervated by?
sympathetic fibres
how long is the male urethra?
about 20cm long
describe the intramural urethra?
in the wall of the bladder
diameter and length varies with fullness of bladder
describe the prostatic urethra
in prostate
has uretic crest with ejactulatory duct openings and prosatic utricle
has prostatic sinuses
what are the prostatic sinuses?
either side of the ureteric crest
prostatic ducts open into it
what is the urethral crest?
median ridge of prostatic urethra
seminal colliculus is round eminence
what is the prostatic utricle
embryological remnant of uterovaginal canal
where do the urinary and reprouctive tracts merge in the male?
where ejaculatory ducts open into urethra
what is the arterial supply of the intramural and prostatic urethra?
inferior vesicical artery
middle rectal artery
what is the venous drainage of the first two parts of the male urethra?
to the vesicular and prostatic venous plexuses
what glands are associated with the female urethra?
urethral glands: particularly on superior part
paraurehtral gland, have common paraurethra duct which opens wither side of external urethral orifice
what structures does the female urethra pass thorugh?
pelvic diaphragm
external urethral sphincter
perineal membrane
whats the arterial supply of the female urethra?
internal pudendal arteries
vaginal arteries
what level is the rectosigmoid juntion?
S3
describe what happens to the taenia coli at the rectosigmoidal junction?
stop in rectum, here there is only continouou outer longtidudinal layer of smooth muscle
what happens to omental appendages at rectosigmoidal juncton:
stop in rectum
describe flexures of rectum?
rectosigmoidal- as passes over sacrum/coccyx
anorectal angle = 80 degrees
3 lateral flexures
describe lateral flexures of rectum?
overly rectal folds
inferior and superior on left
intermediate on right
how does the puborectalis muscle help with fecal continence
supports anorectal angle
actively contracts during peristalsis to prevent defecation
what is the ampulla of rectum
dilated terminal part
allows accumulation of fecal matter
must be distendable