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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Conception to 6 weeks gestation
Lung bud appears followed by 2 branches
Airway branching begins
Pulmonary arteries perfuse lung tissue

What stage?
Embryonic Stage
7 to 16 weeks gestation
Diaphragm develops (7 weeks)
Airway branching continues to the terminal bronchi
Muscle, elastic tissue, and cartilage forms
Mucus glands form

What Stage?
Pseudoglandular Stage
17 to 26 weeks gestation
Airways bud into pouches
Pulmonary capillaries proliferate
Formation of alveolar ducts
Appearance of Type I and Type II pneumocytes
Immature surfactant present (24 weeks)

What Stage?
Canalicular Stage
“Alveolar” stage
27 weeks to term
Appearance of alveoli
Appearance of mature surfactant

What Stage?
Terminal Sac Stage
Respiratory tract
Epithelium of digestive tract
Primary tissue of the liver and pancreas

What Germ Layer?
Cardiovascular System
Dermis and Muscles
Bone and connective tissue
Reproductive organs

What Germ Layer?
Hair, nails
Lens of the eye
Central and peripheral nervous system
Skin glands

What Germ Layer?
Appears with development of Type II pneumocytes ?
Surfactant is composed of?
Composed of phospholipids: phosphatidylcholine (PC) phosphatidylglycerol (PG)
Neutral lipids
Function of Surfactant (3)?
Reduces surface tension in alveoli of lungs
Prevents alveolar collapse
Requires less pressure to keep alveoli open
On inspiration, surfactant _____, allows for passive exhalation, allowing surface tension to constrict alveoli back to smaller size?

thickens or thins
Sampling_______ can predict lung maturity?
amniotic fluid

Compare PC levels (lecithin) to Sphingomyelin levels
Contributes to amniotic fluid
Secreted by fetal lung that acts like a gland
Maintains patency of developing airways
Plays role in formation of potential airspaces
Approximately 20-30 ml/kg of fluid at term
Taken up by lymphatics after birth

What am I?
Fetal Lung Fluid?
Provides nutrients to the fetus
Receives O2 and Rids CO2
Removes waste from fetus

What am I?
carries oxygenated blood from placenta to fetus?
Umbilical vein
carry deoxygenated blood from fetus to placenta?
Umbilical arteries
Fetal Heart Rate (FHR) ?
140-120 b/min on avg.
Assessing Fetal Status can detect?
placental insufficiency
Detects compression of the umbilical cord and bradycardia
Causes of Abnormal FHR?
Tachycardia or Bradycardia (with decelerations) results from asphyxia
Tachycardia (without decelerations) results from fever, anemia, hyperthyroidism, infection, hypovolemia
Bradycardia (without decelerations) results from congenital heart block, oxytocin, propanolol
Common Maternal High Risk Factors (8)?
Low income/housing
Maternal age under 16 years
Smoking/Drug use
Previous history
Diabetes/endocrine disorders
Regular contractions to full dilation of cervix, 16-18 hr average

What labor Stage?
Stage I
Full dilation of cervix to delivery of fetus, 1hr average

What labor stage?
Stage II
Delivery of fetus to delivery of the placenta, 3-4 min average

What labor stage?
Stage III
process of stopping labor?
Pharmacologic tocolytics

Terbutaline and Ritodrine used as?
smooth muscle relaxants
Pharmacologic tocolytics

Magnesium sulfate used as?
Pharmacologic tocolytics

Nifedipine used as?
Calcium channel blocker
Prolonged and difficult labor
Present when stage I and II exceeds 20 hours?
Causes of Dystocia?
Uterine dysfunction
Abnormal fetal presentation
Excessive fetal size
Abnormality in size or shape of birth canal
umbilical cord passes through the cervix into the birth canal before the fetus this is called?
umbiblical cord between fetus and maternal pelvis?
Problems With Umbilical Cord can cause?
hypoxia that can lead to asphyxia
Implantation of embryo in the lower portion of the uterus?
Placenta Previa
3 varieties or placenta previa?
Low- does not cover cervical opening
Partial- covers portion of cervical opening
Total- completely covers cervical opening
Abruptio Placentae?
Premature separation of placenta from the uterine wall
Most common cause is preeclampsia (maternal hypertension)
Abruptio Placentae
Stimulates premature labor
Fetal mortality is 50%
Abruptio Placentae