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25 Cards in this Set

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Define failure to thrive (FTT)
FTT is a condition in which an infant's wt gain and growth are far below usual levels for age
List the major risk factors of FTT
1. Low socioeconomic status
2. Low maternal age
3. Low birth wt
4. Caregiver neglect
5. Maternal or fetal disease
What are the most common organic causes of FTT?
1. Congenital heart disease
2. Cystic fibrosis (CF)
3. Celiac sprue
4. Pyloric stenosis
5. Infection
6. Gastroesophageal reflux
What determines the Apgar score?
APGAR (0,1, or 2 in each category)
Appearance (blue/pale, pink trunk, all pink)
Pulse (0, <100, >100)
Grimace with stimulation (0, grimace, grimace and cough)
Activity (limp, some, active)
Respiratory effort (0, irregular, regular)
Determine the Apgar score:

Newborn with a pink trunk, HR=50, a grimace and cough when stimulated, strong muscle tone, and an irregular respiratory effort
seven
Determine the Apgar score:

A blue newborn, HR =30, a grimace when stimulated, appears limp, and has no respiratory effort
two
What serologic marker is used to detect the HIV status in an infant of a HIV + mother?
HIV DNA levels
What three organisms are the most common causes of neonatal sepsis?
"GEL:
Group B streptococci, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes
What is the treatment regimen for a neonate with sepsis?
Ampicillin and gentamicin or ampicillin and cefotaxime for 10-14 days
What is the differential diagnosis of respiratory distress in a newborn?
Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), meconium aspiration, transient tachypnea of the newborn, congenital pneumonia, congenital heart disease
What is the most common cause of respiratory failure in a premature new born?
RDS
What is the pathogenesis of RDS?
Lack of adequate surfactant production causing alveolar collapse
What is the typical course of RDS?
Progressive worsening and impending respiratory failure in the first 48-72 h of life
What are the characteristic findings of CXR of RDS?
Diffuse atelectasis and ground-glass appearance
What is the treatment off RDS?
Usually requires intubation and surfactant administration
What are the complications of chronic treatment of RDS?
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, and barotrauma from positive pressure ventilation
What is physiologic jaundice?
Transient, unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia caused by large bilirubin load that overwhelms a maturing liver system
What three features differentiate physiologic jaundice from pathologic jaundice?
1. Hyperbilirubinemia in the first 24 hours of life
2. Prolonged jaundice
3. Conjugaed hyperbilirubinemia
Name the fatal complication of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.
Kernicterus (bilirubin staining of the basal ganglia, pons, and cerebellum)
Name the two therapies available for severe jaundice.
1. Phototherapy
2. Exchange transfusion
What is the pathognomonic radiographic finding in patients with necrotizing enterocolitis?
Pneumatosis intestinalis (air in the bowel wall)
Name the congenital anomaly in the described below:
Neonate with inability to feed, excessive salivation, and recurrent aspiration pneumonia with a polyhydramniotic mother
tracheoesophageal fistula
Name the congenital anomaly in the described below:
Neonatal with bilious emesis and a "double-bubble" sign oon abd radiograph
duodenal atresia
Name the congenital anomaly in the described below:
Neonatal born with abd viscera herniating through the umbilicus, contained in a sac
omphalocele
Name the congenital anomaly in the described below:
Neonate born with abd viscera herniating through the umbilicus, no sac
gastroschisis