Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
dysfunctional voiding: MRI
low yield; gluteal/lumbosacral abnormalities; severe urine/stool accidents; failure of medical management
dysfunctional voiding: urodynamics
indicated if refractory or persistent incontinence; unusual clinical presentation; preop eval
gives idea of bladder capacity and sensation/compliance.
bladder neck dysfunction tx
Doxazosin: alpha 1 adrenergic antagonist; .5-1 mg daily; significant decrease in incontinent episodes.
best tx for primary nocturnal enuresis
combination therapy: oxybutynin + desmopressin (DDVAP)
imaging- UTI
US and VCUG: all children <5 yrs w/ first UTI; any age child w/ febrile UTI; school age girls w/ recurrent cystitis; any age child w/ UTI and family hx of VUR
edoscopic management for VUR
hyaluronic acid/dextranomer gel; 80-95% success; outpatient w/ low complications; might still need open surgery if high grade reflux.
PIC cystogram
positional instillation of contrast at ureteral orifice; IDs kids w/ recurrent febrile UTI who don't reflux on standard VCUG; avoids awake cystogram
bladder reconstruction
reserved for pts w/ extrophy or spina bifida; often times kids using intermittent catheterization;
malone antegrade continence enema: reinforced appendix to skin; complete colonic emptying; complications include stomal problems, leak, metabolic abnormalities.
testicular torsion:
spermatic cord twists; 11-17; acute onset testicular pain; scrotal skin swelling; N/V; bull's eye configuration on nuclear scan;
TT exam
affected testicle rides high; tenderness not relieved by elevation; absent cremaster; unaffected might lie horizontal; UA generally nl;
TT tx
immediate surgical exploration; scrotal doppler US or testicular scan; untwist and salvage or orchiectomy; bilateral orchiopexy
circumcision health advantages
UTI, STD, HIV, penile cancer, HPV and cervical cancer, foreskin problems
circumcision indications
recurrent UTIs, chronic balanoposthitis, balaitis xerotica obliterans, VUR, pathologic phimosis and paraphimosis, congenital spinal abnormalities (CIC)
circumcision contraindications
prematurity, family hx of bleeding disorders, buried or concealed penis, large hydrocoeles or hernias, penile anomalies, or congenital penile lymphedema
circumcision risks
bleeding, infection, local tissue injury; poor cosmesis; penile adhesions and skin bridges; meatal stenosis/ meatitis
abortive development of urethral spongiosum; ventral prepuce; increased incidence w/ in vitro, increased maternal age, and environmental; elective repair at 6-18 mo
ureteropelvic junction obstruction
most common cause of neonatal hydronephrosis; 20% may be bilateral if dx in infancy; class US findings
w/ hydronephrosis. result of stenosis or reflux. re-do the VCUG to rule out reflux.
multicystic dysplastic kidney
most common cause of belly mass in a newborn; not as common as UPJ on US; classic US findings-- renal shape is lost, many cysts of different sizes, and little or no parenchyma. 20% are bilateral in utero.
usually due to ureteral atresia; asymptomatic if unilateral; often involute and regress spontaneously
infantile polycystic kidney disease
ARPKD: rare; chrom 6; large kidneys; defect cysts in collecting tubules; variable prognosis
adult polcystic kidney disease
ADPKD: common (0.1% of pop); chrom 16; few cysts, CM junction accentuated on US; family history +
posterior urethral valves
in males, 2nd most common cause of neonatal hydronephrosis; spectrum of severity; US: oligo, thick walled dilated bladder, dilated posterior urethra, bilateral hydro, dilated ureters, and possible urinary ascites
obstructing ectopic ureterocele; 3rd most common cause of neonatal hydro; hydronephrosis of upper pole, dilated ureter, and "cyst like" structure in bladder; basically outpouchings of ureter as it goes into the bladder.
female pseudohermaphroditism
most common intersex disorder; ovaries and mullerian derivatives are normal; sex ambiguity limited to virilization of external genitalia; female fetus only masculinized if exposed to androgen; degree of masculinization determined by stage of differentiation at time of exposure. AR.
most common dx; loss of fxn of five genes involved in steroid biosyn; CYP21 and CYP11B1 impaired cortisol secretion and overproduction of adrenal androgens; affected males have no genital anomalies; AR.
CAH management
glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement; surgical reconstruction once 6 mo of age; reduction clitoroplasty; labial reconstruction; or vaginoplasty