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67 Cards in this Set

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Define Growth
increase in number and size of cells
Define Development
expanding of individuals' abilities and capacity through growth of maturity and learning
Define Maturation
increase in competency and adaptability, usually describes a qualitative change; functioning at a higher level.
Define Differentiation
early cells/structures are systematically modified to achieve specific characteristics; used to describe a trend of mass to specific
What is cephalocaudal?
A pattern of growth starting at head and moving down to the feet
What is Proximodistal?
A pattern of growth starting from the midline and moving outward distally.
Infancy Period:
Birth to 1 year
Early Childhood
1 year to 6 years
Middle Childhood
6 years to 11 or 12 years
Later Childhood
11 or 12 years to 19 years
Sensitive/Critical Periods
First 3 months in womb sensitive to teratogens.
Growth Periods
During infancy, growth of torso predominates. Legs grow most rapidly during childhood. Child's height doubles at age 2. Birth wt generally doubles by 4-7 mos, triples by 1 yr.
Fluid Requirements (1)
Each degree of fever increases BMR by 10% with corresponding increase in fluid intake requirements.
Temperament
defined as "manner of thinking"
Temperament: the easy child
Even tempered, regular/predictable positive approach to new stimuli; open and adaptable
Temperament: the difficult child
Highly active; irritable; irregular in their habits; Negative withdraw responses are common. Adapt slowly to new routines/situations. More vulnerable to bxal problems.
Temperament: the slow-to-warm-up child
Reacts negatively to new stimuli with mild intensity; adapt slowly to new situations unless pressured. Inactive and moody. More vulnerable to bxal problems.
Temperament: Degree of Fit
Determines vulnerability to behavioral problems. Measures termperament versus environment(primary caregiver). If temperament disagrees with parental involvement/style, more likely to have bx problems.
Freud: basic theory
All humans driven by psychosexual forces, energy divided b/t Id, Ego, Superego. Psychosexual: term Freud used to describe sensual pleasure
Freud: Id, Ego, Superego
Id/Subconscious Mind: inborn, driven by instinct. Obeys pleasure and gratification of needs
Freud: Ego/Conscious Mind
Controlled conscious self that can find realistic and accepted ways of satisfaction of the Id
Freud: Superego/Conscience
Moral arbitrator; ideal. Prevents one from expressing desires that threaten social order.
Freud: Oral Stage
Birth to 1year: infancy focused on oral activities. Sucking, chewing, biting, vocalizing
Freud: Anal Stage
1yr to 3yrs: interest in anal region involving anal sphincter muscles. Child will exert control over body via potty training.
Freud: Phallic Stage
3yrs to 6yrs: genitalia become interesting and sensitive. Recognize difference in genders; curious about differences. Oedipus/Electra complexes. Penis envy for girls; Castration fear for boys.
Freud: Latency Period
6yrs to 12yrs: Focus is on acquired skills/traits. Psychic energy channeled into knowledge/play
Freud: Genital Stage
12yrs and older: Begins puberty; maturation of sex organs and hormone production. Genitalia provide source of pleasure/tension. Energy also invested in relationships/friendships and preparing for marriage.
Erikson: Basic theories
Most widely accepted theory of personality development. Observes healthy conflicts one must master to avoid pathological personality traits. Progress to next stage depends on completion of previous.
Erikson: Trust Vs. Mistrust
Birth to 1yr: dominates relationship with parent. Loving care essential to dev trust with parent. Mistrust occurs when needs of infant con't not met. FAITH & OPTIMISM result of achieving Trust.
Erikson: Autonomy Vs. Shame/Doubt
1yr to 3yrs: Focus on toddler's ability to control body and environment. They want independence via climbing, walking, eating, potty-train, decision-making. Doubt/Shame arise when made to feel "small/self-conscious/unable". SELF-CONTROL/WILLPOWER result of achieving Autonomy
Erikson: Initiative Vs. Guilt
3yrs to 6yrs: Enterprise, strong imagination, exploring with all senses, dev an inner voice that warns, undertakes activites that go against the rules. Guilt occurs when child made to think imaginary activities are bad. DIRECTION & PURPOSE result of achieving Initiative
Erikson: Industry Vs. Inferiority
6yrs to 12yrs: Engage in tasks, able to compute, desire achievement, learn to cooperate, Inferiority occurs when too much is expected; believe they cannot measure up. COMPETENCE result of achieving Industry.
Erikson: Identity Vs. Role Confusion
12yrs to 18yrs: Rapid & marked physical changes, overly occupied in appearance instead of self-concept. Adolescents struggle with roles they have played & roles want to play. Role confusion occurs when inability to solve internal conflict regarding self identity. DEVOTION & FIDELITY result of achieving Identity.
Piaget: basic theories
Age-related changes that occur in mental activities. Intelligence enables one to adapt to environment increasing probability of survival.
Piaget: 3 Stages of Reasoning
1) Intuitive. 2) Concrete Operational. 3) Formal Operational.
Piaget: Sensorimotor:
Birth to 2yrs: intellectual dev consisting of 6 stages in which simple learning occurs via the senses. Infants progress from reflexive activity to imitative bx. Develop sense of "cause and effect." High level of curiosity & experiment. Dev sense of self separate from caregiver. Object permanence learned in this stage.
Piaget: Preoperational
2yr to 7yrs: Egocentrism is predominant characteristic. Inability to put self in place of others. Different from selfishness or self-centered b/c no ability to see other perspective. Children interpret objects/events in terms of relationships & ability to use.Thinking is concrete/tangible, no ability to deduce. Imaginary play/questioning.
Piaget: Concrete Operational
Thought becomes more logical/coherent. Able to classify/organize facts for use in problem-solving. Conservation develops (understand volume principles). Reasoning is inductive: thought becomes less self-centered via relationships.
Piaget: Formal Operational
11yrs to 15yrs: Characterized by adaptability & flexibility. Can think in abstract terms, use abstract symbols, draw logical conclusions, consider philosophical matters. May confuse ideal with practical.
Language Development
Environment must be conducive to language. Gestures preceed vocal language. At all stages of development, comprehension of language is greater than expressed vocabulary.
Kohlberg: Moral development
Moral development based on cognitive dev. theory and consists of 3 major levels, each with 2 stages.
Kohlberg: Preconventional Level
Parallels preoperational level of Piaget's theory. Children integrate ideas of good/bad into actions. First children determine action in terms of consequences, "good" becomes what satisfies their own needs.
Kohlberg: Conventional Level
Children are concerned with conformity & loyalty. Bx that meets approval or helps others is good. Being "nice" correlates with Piaget's Concrete Operational stage.
Kohlberg: Postconventional Level
AKA: Autonomous/Principled Level. Child/Adolescent has reached cognitive stage. Bx defined in terms of rights/standards agreed upon by society.
Kohlberg: Most advanced level
Most advanced level of moral law is where self-chosen ethical principles guide decisions of conscience. Usually involves universal principles of justice/dignity. Believed very few people reach this level.
Fowler: Spiritual Development
Closely related to moral dev. Should be considered as part of child's basic need assessment (children need hope/purpose/meaning). Need for confession/forgiveness is present.
Fowler: Stage 0 (undifferentiated)
Encompasses infancy when children have no concept of right/wrong, beliefs, religion, etc. But, beginnings of faith begin with ability to trust (Erikson)
Fowler: Stage 1 (intuitive-projective)
Toddler age: imitating others beliefs and bx. Imitate religious gestures without comprehension. Preschool Age: children assimilate some values of parents. Good/bad seen in parents/taught by parents.
Fowler: Stage 2 (mythical-literal)
School Age: Spiritual dev. parallels cognitive dev. Is closely related to experiences/interaction. Most strongly interested in religion at this age; accepts diety existence; prayers are important and expected to be answered. Guilt accompanies "bad" deeds.
Fowler: Stage 3 (synthetic-convention)
Adolescence: Become more aware of spiritual disappointments. See that prayers not always answered in the way they want. May begin to abandon beliefs/modify practices. Begin to question established parental standards.
Fowler: Stage 4 (individuating-reflective)
Adolescence: become more skeptical, compare current religious beliefs with those of peers and science. Time of searching (Erikson "Identity"). Profound insight not until late adolescence.
Self-concept
How an individual describes themselves. Includes notions, beliefs, convictions. Develops gradually as children learn limits. Self-concept hardened in later adolescence.
Self-esteem
The value an one places on themselves. A personal subjective judgement on one's worthiness derived from social groups and perceptions of how one is valued by others. Changes with dev stages.
Social-Affective Play
1st type of play; infants take pleasure in relationships with ppl. Parents learn to provoke responses in infants, and infants learn to provoke responses in parents.
Sense-Pleasure Play
Nonsocial experience; objects with lights, colors, textures, odors, etc will stimulate pleasure
Skill Play
Infants will repeat abilities like grasping over and over again. Toddlers may become frustrated when ability to master skill eludes them.
Unoccupied Behavior
Not playful but focusing attention on anything that interests them: daydreaming, listless mvmt, walking aimlessly. Not the same as observing.
Dramatic/Pretend Play
Begins in late infancy (11-13months) & is predominant form of play in preschool child. Children are able to pretend after they can attach meaning to the world around them. Pretend allows them to model situations and adult roles around them.
Games
Very young children participate in imitative games like peek-a-boo. Preschool children enjoy formal games like Ring-around-the-Rosie (ritualistic/self-limiting),
Imitative Games, Formal Games, and Competitive Games
Older children enjoy competitive games. Preschool and Toddlers hate losing/can't play competitive games. Imitative games played by infants.
Onlooker Play
Children observe other children's play but make no attempt to join. Ex: watching an older sibling bounce a ball.
Solitary Play
Children play alone with toys no one else is using in the same area of other children. No attempt is made to play with other children; centered on own activity.
Parallel Play:
Child plays alone, but among other children also playing with similar toys. Child will play beside but not with. Characteristic of Toddlers.
Associative Play
Children play together in similar/identical activity. No organization, leadership or mutual goal. Two girls playing with two barbies, maybe swapping clothes, but no other interaction in play.
Cooperative Play
Organized, children play with others. There is a goal, leadership is present, there is a purpose and end. May be a loosely formed group, but still a sense of belonging.
Fx of Play: Sensorimotor Dev.
Predominant in infancy; active mvmt/play req for muscle dev. Infants gain impressions, Toddlers gain body control and get joy from body mvmt.
Fx of Play: Intellectual Dev.
Learn concepts of colors, shapes, sizes, textures, objects, numbers. Associate words with objects and spatial relationship of objects (up and down).