• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/75

Click to flip

75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Stridor, wheezing
upper airway obstruction
tracheal lesions
rings and slings
FB
asthma
Upper airway obstruction in a child
epiglottitis
croup
retropharyngeal abscess
caustic ingestion
FB
tonsillar hypertrophy
adenopathy
thyroglossal duct cyst
branchial cleft cyst
choanal atresia (nasal obstruction)
Bubbly lungs in neonates
BPD
PIE
CF
CDH
CCAM
CLE
Child with mass lesions in airways
lymphangioma
hemangioma
antrochoanal polyp
angiofibroma
neuroblastoma
rhabdomyosarcoma
lymphadenopathy
retention cysts
papillomas
Neonatal lung masses
sequestration
CDH
CCAM
CLE
hypoplastic lung
phrenic nerve paralysis
neuroblastoma
Hyperlucent lung
PTX
CCAM
CLE
congenital lung cyst
BO
obstructive emphysema (CF, asthma, PNA, FB, rings, LAD, bronchogenic cyst)
Neonatal respiratory distress
HMD - vol low
TTN
MAS - coarse, volume high
NP
Neonatal PTX
pressure ventilation
PIE
pulmonary hypoplasia
Child with small SPN
bronchogenic cyst
sequestration
AVM
bronchial atresia
round PNA (most common)
granuloma
abscess
plasma cell granuloma
neuroblastoma
Wilms met
Multiple pulmonary nodules
mets (Wilms, teratoma, rhabdomyosarc, OSA)
laryngeal papillomatosis
septic emboli
TB / fungus
Wegener’s
Interstitial lung disease in a child
storage disease
lymphangiectasia
EG
LAM
viral
BPD, HMD
TTN
MAS
NP
Chest wall mass in a child
EG / Ewing's
PNET
neuroblastoma
mets
empyema
Neonate with Dilated stomach
HPS
pylorospasm
antral web
antral gastritis
Double bubble
duodenal atresia/stenosis/web
annular pancreas
Ladd’s bands
midgut volvulus
preportal vein
SMA syndrome
Proximal bowel obstruction
NEONATES-
small bowel atresia/stenosis
midgut volvulus
Ladd’s bands

CHILDREN–
intussusception
incarcerated inguinal hernia
perforated appendicitis
Neonate with Distal bowel obstruction
Hirschsprung’s
meconium plug
ileal atresia/stenosis
meconium ileus
imperforate anus
Microcolon
ileal atresia
meconium ileus
total colonic Hirschsprung’s
Neonate with pneumatosis
NEC
CF
CVD
leukemia
obstruction
steroids
Gasless abdomen
severe vomiting – gastroenteritis, appendicitis
poor swallowing – esoph atresia, neurologic impairment
displaced bowel – CDH, omphalocele, masses, ascites
Neonate with Abdominal calcifications
intraabdominal– meconium peritonitis (most common)
renal– neuroblast, Wilms, nephrocalcin, renal cysts, stones
bowel – fecalith of appx, Meckel’s
bladder – hemorrhagic cystitis
adrenal – hemorrhage, Wolman’s disease
cholelithiasis – sickle cell
liver – hepatoblastoma, granuloma
Neonatal abdominal mass
RENAL– hydronephrosis, MCDK, mesoblastic nephroma
GI – duplication, meconium pseudocyst
RP – adrenal hemorrhage
GENITAL– ovarian cyst, hydrometrocolpos
HEPATOBIL– hemangioendothelioma, choledochal cyst
Abdominal mass in older child
RENAL– Wilms, hydronephrosis
GI – appendiceal abscess, intussusception, neoplasm
RP – neuroblastoma
GENITAL– ovarian cyst, teratoma, hydrometrocolpos
HEPATOBIL– hepatoblastoma, HCC, mesenchymal hamartoma
VP SHUNT– CSFoma
Gastric filling defect
FB (most common)
bezoar
duplication
ectopic pancreas
Thick bowel folds in a child
enteritis
lymphoma / leukemia, Henoch-Schonlein purpura
HUS
coagulopathies
Child with GI bleed
Meckel’s
juvenile polyps
IBD
Liver lesions in a child
cysts
hemangioendothelioma
mesenchymal hamartoma
hepatoblastoma
HCC
mets from Wilms or neuroblastoma
Child with Fatty liver
chronic protein malnutrition (most common)
CF
glycogen storage disease
hepatitis
chemotherapy
steroids
hyperalimentation
Child with Cholelithiasis
sickle cell
thalassemia
CF
HPT
premature infants with HMD
Congenital GU anomalies
*malrotation, ectopic kidney, horseshoe kidney, cross-fused ectopia, renal hypoplasia
*ureteral duplication, ureterocele, UPJ or UVJ obstruction, megaureter
*bladder extrophy, prune belly, PUV, hypospadias, caudal regression
Cystic renal masses in kids
hydronephrosis
ARPKD
MCDK
multilocular cystic nephroma
VHL
TS
cystic Wilms
Child w/ Hydronephrosis
(most common abdominal mass in neonates)
UPJ obstruction
UVJ obstruction
ectopic ureterocele
PUV
prune belly
Child w/ Solid renal mass
Wilms (children)
mesoblastic nephroma (newborns)
nephroblastomatosis
AML
lymphoma / leukemia
neuroblastoma
Child w/ Adrenal mass
neonatal hemorrhage (common)
neuroblastoma
other RP masses (Wilms, hydro upper pole, RP LAD, hepatoblastoma, splenic mass)
Child with Cystic structure in or near bladder wall
Hutch diverticulum
urachal remnant
ureterocele
megaureter
ovarian cyst
mesenteric cyst
Child with Interlabial mass
ectopic ureterocele
periurethral cysts
rhabdomyosarcoma of vagina
prolapsed urethra
imperforate hymen
Child with Enlarged head
hydrocephalus (most common)
SDH
hemiatrophy
Beckwith-Wiedemann
Child with Small head
absent or atrophic brain
craniosynostosis
shunt placement
Child with Thick skull
renal osteodystrophy
HPT
anemias
leukemia / lymphoma
chronic low ICP (shunts mc cause of calvarial thickening)
dilantin
FD
Child with Lytic skull lesions
EG
leukemia / lymphoma
FD
dermoid
epidermoid
HPT
Child with Multiple lacunae
physiologic
increased ICP
meningocele
encephalocele
Wormian bones
normal, cleidocranial dysostosis, hypothyroidism, OI, pyknodysostosis, Downs – CHOPS
Harlequin eyes
craniosynostosis, NF, craniometaphyseal dysplasia
Congenital nasal masses
nasal cephalocele, nasal glioma, dermoid/dermal sinus
Neck mass in infant
fibromatosis colli, branchial cleft cyst, lymphangioma/hemangioma, thyroglossal duct cyst, thymic cyst, dermoid, adenopathy, rhabdomyosarcoma, lymphoma, neuroblastoma
Child with Intracranial calcification
-physiologic (choroid plexus, pineal gland, falx)
-tumor (craniopharyngioma, oligodendroglioma, meningioma)
-infection (TORCH, TB, cysticercosis)
-congenital (congenital atrophy, TS, Sturge-Weber), metabolic (hypoparathyroid, Fahr’s)
-trauma, vascular (AVM, hematoma, aneurysm)
Enlarged sella turcica in kids
craniopharyngioma (most common)
optic chiasm/hypothalamic glioma
increased intracranial pressure
empty sella
Bone tumors in kids
chondroblastoma, ABC, NOF, EG, SBC, FD, osteoid osteoma, Ewing’s, OSA, neuroblastoma mets, lymphoma, leukemia

fluid-fluid level – ABC, telangiectatic OSA, GCT, single cysts w/ pathologic fx
Widened joint space in kids
*joint effusion
– septic arthritis
- hemarthrosis
- transient toxic synovitis
- JRA
*synovial thickening w/o articular cartilage destruction
– JRA
- hemophilia
Bowed bones
rickets (most common)
NF
OI
FD
Diffuse osteopenia in kids
rickets
HPT
immobilization
JRA
Diffuse dense bones in kids
osteopetrosis, pyknodysostosis
melorheostosis
Caffey’s
idiopathic hypercalcemia
pachydermoperiostosis
hypothyroidism
syphilis
hypervitaminosis D
Symmetric periosteal reaction in kids
physiologic
neuroblastoma
lymphoma, leukemia
infection
Caffey’s, hypervitaminosis A/D
prostaglandins
scurvy
child abuse, trauma
sickle cell – SCALP
Dwarfs
achondroplasia
thanatophoric dysplasia
OI
hypophosphatasia, achondrogenesis
multiple epiphyseal dysplasia
Deformed epiphysis in kids
single – AVN, trauma, infection, hypothyroidism

multiple – multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, Morquio’s
Stippled epiphysis
chondrodysplasia punctata
multiple epiphyseal dysplasia
AVN
hypothyroid
coumadin/alcohol embryopathy
chromosomal anomalies
Enlarged epiphysis in kids
JRA
hemophilia
chronic infection
healed Perthes
Frayed metaphysis in kids
*rickets, hypophosphatasia, scurvy
*rubella, syphilis
*achondroplasia, metaphyseal dysostosis
Transverse metaphyseal lines
--lucent--
stress lines from any severe dz
> 2 yrs consider neuroblast mets, lymphoma, leukemia

--dense--
neonatal growth recovery lines
>2 yrs lead bands or healing rickets
Widened growth plate
>1mm

DDx
rickets (most common)
Salter 1 fx
neuroblastoma
lymphoma, leukemia
infection
Metaphyseal fragments
child abuse / trauma
Blount’s
infection
Vertebral plana (localized platyspondyly)
neuroblastoma mets
EG
lymphoma, leukemia
infection
trauma
Generalized platyspondyly in kids
OI
dwarfism
Morquio
Cushing
Fused vertebrae in kids
isolated fusion
Klippel-Feil syndrome (C2-3 fusion)
posttraumatic
Atlantoaxial subluxation
Downs
Morquio
JRA
trauma
Sacral abnormalities
meningocele
NF
presacral teratoma
agenesis
Pediatric Proximal femur abnormalities
Perthes
SCFE
congenital coxa vara
femoral focal deficiency
Radial ray deficiency
absence of 1st and/or 2nd digit, often involves radius
Holt-Oram
thrombocytopenia-absent radius syndrome
Polydactyly
familial
chondroectodermal dysplasia
trisomy 13
Meckel-Gruber
Short 4th metacarpal
normal variant
Turner
pseudohypoparathyroid
pseudopseudohypoparathyroid
Long 4th metacarpal
NF
macrodystrophia lipomatosa
Causes of delayed bone age
hypothyroidism
cyanotic CHD
chronic lung disease
HGH deficiency
Hemihypertrophy DDx
Wilms
Beckwith-Wiedemann’s
AV fistula
lymphangioma
Down’s syndrome common manifestations
duodenal atresia
TE fistula
EA
ECD
Hirschsprung’s
mult sternal ossification centers
11 ribs
Things that happen to premature infants
HMD
NEC
germinal matrix hemorrhage
PVL
PDA
Child with Presacral mass
rectal duplication
anterior meningocele
teratoma
neuroblastoma