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143 Cards in this Set

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IN CONTRAST TO ADULTS, CHILDREN HAVE ____________________ __________________ HEADS
PROPORTIONALLY LARGER
WHY ARE CHILDREN CONSIDERED "BELLY BREATHERS"?
THEY HAVE LITTLE USE OF THEIR CHEST MUSCLES
HOW MANY CHILDREN BETWEEN 1 AND 3 YEARS OF AGE RESPOND TO EMS CREWS?
THEY MAY RESPOND TO EMS NEGATIVELY
AN 8 YEAR OLD CHILD IS ______________________ AND PHYSIOLOGICALLY __________________________ TO AN ADULT
ANATOMICALLY

SIMILIAR
THE PEDIATRIC ASSESSMENT TRIANGLE WAS DESIGNED TO DO WHAT?
DESIGNED TO HELP EMS PROVIDERS FORM A "FROM THE DOORWAY" GENERAL IMPRESSION OF PEDIATRIC PATIENTS. IT IS ALSO COLLECTIVELY PAINTS AN ACURATE CLINICAL PICTURE OF THE PATIENTS CARDIOPULMONARY STATUS & LEVEL OF CONSIOUSNESS
A CHILD WHO IS DISINTERESTED IN YOUR PRESENCE AND HAS A BLANK STARE AND POOR MUSCLE TONE WILL REQUIRE WHAT?
FURTHER EVALUATION - LECTURE
IN CONTRAST TO ADULTS, RETRACTION IN CHILDREN ARE MORE EVIDENT WHERE?
RETRACTIONS ARE A MORE USEFUL MEASURE OF WORK OF BREATHING IN CHILDREN THAN IN ADULTS BECAUSE A CHILD'S CHEST WALL IS LESS MUSCULAR, SO THE INWARD EXCURSION OF SKIN AND SOFT TISSUE BETWEEN THE RIBS IS MORE APPARENT.
THE LENGTH-BASED RESUSCITATION TAPE IS USED TO ESTIMATE A CHILD'S ___________________ BASEd ON HIS OR HER ___________________
WEIGHT

HEIGHT
ASSESSMENT OF A CHILD'S SKIN VITALS IN A COLD ENVIRONMENT WOULD YIELD WHAT?
INACCURRATE RESULT - LECTURE
IN CONTRAST TO ADULTS, CARDIAC ARREST IN CHILREN IS USUALLY CAUSED BY WHAT?
RESPIRATORY FAILURE & ARREST
COMMON SIGNS OF IMPENDING RESPIRATORY FAILURE IN INFANTS AND CHILDREN INCLUDE?
AGITATION, RESTLESSNESS, CONFUSION, LETHARGY (VPU/AVPU) - CYANOSIS, PALLOR, TACHYPNEA TO BRADYPNEA TO APNEA, SEVERE RETRACTION, NASAL FLARING, GRUNTING, PARADOXIAL ABDOMINAL MOTION, TRIPOD, STIDOR, WHEEZING RALES, DIMINISHED AIR MOVENET <90% ,SPO2 WITH 02, TACHOYCARDIA, BRADYCARDIA OR CARADIAC ARREST.
IF AN INFANT OR SMALL CHILD SWALLOWED A RIGID FOREIGN BODY, HE OR SHE WOULD MOST LIKELY EXPERIENCE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS BECAUSE WHY?
BECAUSE A RIGID ESOPHAGEAL FOREIGN BODY CAN COMPRESS THE RELATIVELY PLIABLE TRAHEA
IF A 2 YEAR OLD CHILD WITH A FOREIGN BODY AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION BECOMES UNRESPONSIVE, YOU SHOULD POSITION HIM OR HER SUPINE AND THEN ....
BEGIN CPR WITH COMPRESSIONS REMEMBERING TO LOOK IN THE AIRWAY BEFORE VENTILATION EACH TIME.
THE MOST IMPORTANT INITIAL TREATMENT FOR A CHILD IN RESPIRATORY FAILURE DUE TO SUSPECTED CROUP IS WHAT?
ASSISTED VENTILATION WITH BAG-MASK VENTILATION WILL OFTEN SUCCEED IN OVERCOMING THE UPPER AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION.
IN CONTRAST TO UPPER AIRWAY EMERGENCIES, LOWER AIRWAY EMERGENCIES ARE?
THE UNDERLYING PATHOPHYSIOLOGY IN UPPER AIRWAY EMERGENCIESINVOLVES RESTRICTION OF AIR FLOW INTO THE LUNGS (INHALATION) BY CONTRAST, THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF LOWER AIRWAY RESPIRATORY EMERGENCIES IINVOLVES RESTRICTION OF AIR FLOW OUT OF THE LUNGS
( EXHALATION)
WHAT IS THE CORRECT DRUG DOSE, AND DELIVERY ROUTE FOR AN 18-KG CHILD EXPERIENCIG SEVERE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS DUE TO BRONCHOSPASM?
xxxxxxxx
LIST THE BENEFITS OF USING A NASAL OR ORAL AIWAY.
THEY WILL HELP TO MAINTAIN AN OPEN AIRWAY, IMPROVE BAG-MASK VENTILATION AND MAY AVERT THE NEED FOR AN ADVANCED AIRWAY ( SUCH AS AN ET TUBE, LMA KING AIRWAY OR COMBI-TUBE)
PROFICIENT IN VENTILATING APNEIC INFANTS OR CHILREN WITH A BAG-MASK DEVICE MAY AVERT THE NEED FOR _______________________________
ET INTUBATION
WHEN PREPARING TO INTUBATE A SMALL CHILD, IT IS IMPORTANT TO REMEMER WHAT ABOUT THE CHILDS HEAD?
ENSURE THE HEAD IS IN THE NEUTRAL POSITION WITH TRAUMA AND SNIFFING POSITION IF NO TRAUMA IS PRESENT
BECAUSE STIMUALTION OF THE PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM AND BRADYCARDIA CAN OCCUR DURING INTUBATION OF A CHILD YOU SHOULD ?
APPLY CARDIAC MONITOR
IN CONTRAST TO A CHILD WITH PULMONARY EDEMA SECONDARY TO CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE, THE RESPIRATION OF A HYPERCARBIC CHILD WITHOUT PULMONARY EDEMA WOULD MOST LIKELY BE?
TACHYPNEIC WITHOUT RETRACTIONS
THE APPROXIMATE TOTAL BLOOD VOLUME OF A 60 POUND CHILD IS WHAT?
27kg X 80ml = 216ml.
DISTRIBUTIVE SHOCK IN CHILDREN ARE MOST OFTEN THE RESULT OF WHAT?
SEPSIS
UNLIKE OTHER TYPES OF SHOCK, A CHILD IN CARDIOGENIC SHOCK WOULD MOST LIKELY PRESENT WITH:
LETHARGY, INCREASED WORKLOAD IN BREATHING PALE, MOTTLED, OR CYANOTIC SKIN ABNORMAL PULSE, HEART GALLOP OR HEART MURUR AND MAY HAVE AN ENLARGED LIVER.
BRADYYDYSRHYTHMIAS IN CHILDREN MOST OFTEN OCCUR SECONDARY TO WHAT?
HYPOXIA
WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS THE FIRST LINE TREATMENT FOR A HEMODYNAMICALLY UNSTABLE CHILD WITH BRADYCARDIA?
BVM / CPR
UNLIKE SINUS TACHYCRDIA ;REENTRY SUPRAVENTRICULAR TACHOYCARDIA IN INFANTS IS CHRATERIZED BY WHAT?
A CONSTANT HR ABOVE 220
HEMODYNAMICALLY STABLE CHILDREN WITH A WIDE QRS COMPLEX TACHYCARDIA SHOULD RECEIVE ________________________________
AMIODARONE
WHEN ATTEMPTING RESUSCITATION OF A CHILD WITH PULSELESS ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY, YOU SHOULD:
START CPR AND GIVE EPI OR VASOPRESSIN
DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY IS A CONDITION IN WHICH THE HEART IS?
WEAK AND ENLARGED
MENINGOCOCCAL MENINGITIS WITH SEPSIS IS TYPICALLY CHARACTERIZED BY A(AN)
PETEHIAL ( SMALL RED RASH) PURPURI ( LARGE RED RASH) WITH OTHER SYMPTOMS
IN CHILDREN, COMPLEX PARTIAL SEIZURES WOULD MOST LIKELY MANIFEST WITH:
FOCAL MOTOR JERKING WITH LOC
APPROPRIATE AIRWAY MANAGEMENT FOR AN ACTIVELY SEIZING CHILD WHOSE AIRWAY IS NOT MAINTAINABLE WITH POSITIONING INVOLVES?
CONSIDER NASOPHARYNGEAL AIRWAY
IN CONTRAST TO TOXIC INGESTIONS IN TODDLERS, TOXIC INGESTIONS IN ADOLESCENTS TYPICIALLY INVOLVES?
TODDLERS (UNINTENTINAL USUALLY ONE SUBSTANCE) ADOLESCENTS (DRUG USE OR SUICIDE ATTEMPT AN BE MULTIPLE SUBSTANCES)
WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS THE MOST APPROPRIATE DOSE OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL FOR A 45 POUND CHILD
IF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL IS GIVEN IN THE FIELD THE IDEAL DOSE IS 10 TIMES THE MASS OF THE INGESTED SUBSTANCE. THE AMOUNT OF DRUG INGESTED IS OFTEN NOT KNOWN, SO THE TYPICAL DOSE IS 1 TO 2g/kg. THE PATIENT WEIGHS 45 POUNDS = 20.45 kg 20.45 x 1= 20.45; 20.45 x 2= 40.90
(DOSE = BETWEEN 20.45 & 40.90 GRAMS)
THE INCIDENT OF SUDDEN INFANTS DEATH SYNDROME PEAKS BETWEEN THE AGES OF ?
2-4 MONTHS
LIST THE S/S ASSOCIATED WITH A N ALTE
PALE OR CYANOTIC CHOKES GAGS, APNEIC SPELLS, LOSS OF MUSCLE TONE
ONCE YOU SUSPECT THAT A CHILD MAY HAVE BEEN ABUSED, YOUR DOCUMENTATION SHOULD INCLUDE WHAT?
WHAT YOU SEE, HEAR, CHILDS ENVIRONMENT, INTERACTIONS WITH CHILD CAREGIVER AND EMS CREW, CONDITION OF CHILDS SKIN.
WHEN ASSESSING AN OTHERWISE HEALTHY CHILD WHO IS INJURIED, YOU NOTICE THAT HIS GENERAL APPEARANCE IS ABNORMAL. THIS SHOULD MAKE YOU MOST SUSPICIOUS OF WHAT?
ABUSE
IF A CHILD WHO IS WEARING A HELMET STRIKES A FIXED OBJECT ON HIS OR HER BICYCLE AND FLIES OVER THE HANDLEBARS, YOU WOULD LIKELY SEE INJURIES WHERE?
COMPRESSION INJURIES TO THE INTRA-ABDOMINAL ORGANS AND UPPER EXTREMITIES.
WHEN MECHANICALLY SECURING AN INJURED CHILD'S HEAD AND NECK TO A BACKBOARD WHAT SHOULD BE AVOIDED?
A C-COLLAR THAT IS TOO BIG ON A SMALL CHILD
SIGNS OF PAIN IN AN INFANT WOULD LIKELY INCLUDE?
TACHYCARDIA AND INCONSOLABILITY MAY BE THE ONLY WAY A CHILD HAS TO EXPRESS PAIN, AND FINDING MAY BE SIMILIAR TO THOSE OF EARLY SHOCK OR PLAIN OLD FEAR
IF A CHILD WITH A FUNCTIONING CENTRAL VENOUS LINE REQUIRES EMERGENCY DRUG THERAPY SHOULD IT BE USED? EXPLAIN WHY OR WHY NOT
NO, BECAUASE THESE PERMANENT LINES CARRY A HIGH RISK OR INFECTION, LOOK FOR PERIPHERAL ACCESS AND AVOID USING THE CENTRAL LINE WHENEVER POSSIBLE
MOST INJURIES IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS ARE _____________ AND _____________ EVENTS
PREDICTABLE AND PREVENTABLE
WHILE ASSESING THE AIRWAY OF A 3 YEAR OLD GIRL WHO IS UNRESPONSIVE, YOU HEAR A SNORING SOUND DURING EACH OF HER SLOW, SHALLOW BREATHS HOW WOULD YOU TREAT THIS AIRWAY?
REPOSITION THE HEAD, CONSIDER SUCTION, LOOK FOR OBSTRUCTION AND USE BVM
WHAT TREATMENTS WOULD BE INDICATED FOR A 10 MONTH OLD WITH A ACUTE ONSET OF RESPIRATORY DISTRESS & STRIDOR?
SUSPECT FOREIGN BODY OBSTRUCTION. PERFORM BACK SLAPS AND CHEST THRUST. CHECK AIRWAY
WHAT ARE THE PEDICATIRC MEDICATIONS
( & DOSES) USED TO TREAT ANAPHALAXIS?
EPI 0.01 mg/kg 1:1000 IM BENADRYL 1-2 mg/kg IV
WHAT ARE THE MEDICATIONS (& DOSES) USED TO TREAT PEDICATIC ASTHMA?
ALBUTEROL 2.5 mg ATROVENT <10 kg 0.25 mg > 10 mg 0.5 mg EPI 0.01 mg/kg 1:1000 IM
HOW IS SVT IDENTIFIED IN AN INFANT AND CHILD?
INFANT > 220 BEATS

CHILD > 180 BEATS
WHEN WOULD YOU NEED TO PERFORM A SYNCHRONIZED CARDIOVERSION IN A CHILD? WHAT ARE THE JOULE SETTINGS TO DO SO?
CHILD WITH SVT WHO HAS POOR PERFUSION SYNCHRONIZED CARDIO-VERSION IS RECOMMENDED. 0 THE DOSE OF THE INITIAL SYNCHRONIZED CARDIO-VERSION ATTEMPT IS 0.5-1.0 JOULES PER KILOGRAM. IF THE FIRST DOSE IS NOT SUCCESSFUL, A REPEATED DOSE OF 2 JOULES PER KILOGRAM CAN BE GIVEN
WHAT MEDICATIONS SHOULD BE USED TO TREAT CHILDREN WITH A FEVER? WHAT MEDICATION SHOULD BE AVOIDED AND WHY?
CONSIDER TYLENOL 15 mg/kg AVOID ASPIRIN, BECAUSE IT HAS BEEN LINKED WITH A RARE ILLNESS CALLED REYE SYNDROME, WHICH CAN RESULT IN CEREBRAL EDEMA AND LIVER FAILURE
WHAT IS HYDROCEPHALUS? WHAT DEVICE IS PUT IN PLACE TO TREAT THIS CONDITION?
A CONDITION RESULTING FROM IMPAIRED CIRCULATION AND ABSORPTION OF CSF, LEADING TO INCREASED SIZE OF THE VENTRICLES ( FLUID-FILLED SPACES IN THE BRAIN) AND INCREASED ICP. TO DECREASE THE INCREASED ICP PATIENTS WILL OFTEN HAVE A CEREBRAL SHUNT PLACED BY A NEURO-SURGEON
A 6 YEAR CHILD HAS BURNS TO HIS HEAD FACE NECK AND ANTERIOR CHEST. WHAT PERCENTAGE OF HIS BODY SURFACE AREA HAS BEEN BURNED?
(HEAD / FACE / NECK)12 + (ANTERIOR CHEST) 18 = 30%
COMPARED TO ADULTS, THE SMALLER DIAMETER OF A CHILD'S AIRWAY MAKES IT OR VULNERALE TO WHAT?
THE SMALLER DIAMETER MAKES THE AIRWAY MORE PRONE TO OBSTRUCTION EITHER FOREIGN BODY INHALATION, INFLAMMATION WITH INFECTION, OR THE CHILD'S DISPROPORTIONATELY LARGE TONGUE.
WHEN A CHILD EXPERIENCES A LOW CARDIAC OUTPUT STATE, HE OR SHE RELIES MOST ON COMPENSATION BY WHAT?
CHILDREN RELY MAINLY ON THEIR PULSE RATE TO MAINTAIN ADEQUATE CARDIAC OUTPUT AN INFANTS PULSE RATE CAN BE 200 BPM IF THE BODY NEEDS TO COMPENSATE FOR INJURY OR ILLNESS.
EXAMINE THE TODDLER IN STABLE CONDTION ON THE _____________________ ____________________ IN ORDER TO AVOID SEPARATION ANXIETY.
EXAMINE A TODDLER IN STABLE CONDITION ON TO THE PARENT'S LAP IN ORDER TO AVOID SEPARATION ANXIETY
WITH RESPECT TO CPR AND FOREIGN BODY AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION PROCEDURES, THE CHILD SHOULD BE TREATED AS AN ADULT ONCE....?
WITH RESPECT TO CPR AND FBAO PROCEDURES ONE SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARATERISTICS HAVE DEVELOPED ( BREAST, FACIAL/AXILLARY HAIR) THE CHILD SHOULD BE TREATED AS AN ADULT.
ESTABLISHING GOOD RAPPORT WITH THE CAREGIVER OF A SICK OR INJURED CHILD AT THE SCENE IS VITAL BECAUSE?
ESTABLISHING A RAPPORT WITH CAREGIVERS IS VITAL, BECAUSE THEY WILL BE A SOURCE OF IMPORTANT INFORMATION AND ASSISTANCE
WHAT QUESTIONS WILL BE ANSWERED BY THE PEDIATRIC ASSESSENT TRIANGLE?
THE PAT ANSWERS THE QUESTION "SICK OR NOT SICK" IT ALSO HELPS EMS PROVIDERS FORM A "FROM THE DOORWAY" GENERAL IMPRESSION OF PEDIATRIC PATIENTS.
THE WORK- OF- BREATHING COMPONENT OF THE PEDIATRIC ASSESSMENT TRIANGLE INCLUDES ALL OF THE FOLLOWING:
ABNORMAL AIRWAY SOUNDS, ABNORMAL POSTURING RETRACTIONS NASAL FLARING
WHEN ASSESSING A CHILD'S CIRCULATION BY LOOKING AT HIS OR HER SKIN, PALLOR IS INDICATIVE OF WHAT?
(PALENESS) A SIGN OF POOR CIRCULATION OR SIGN OF COMPENSATED SHOCK. BLOOD SHUNTING MAY INDICATE ANEMIA OR HYPOXIA.
WHAT IS THE CORRECT WAY TO MEASURE RESPIRATIONS IN AN INFANT? WHY WOULD COUNTING FOR ONLY 10 TO 15 SECONDS BE INADAQUATE?
COUNT THE NUMBER OF CHEST RISES IN 30 SECONDS THEN DOUBLE THE NUMBER. INFANTS MAY SHOW PERIODIC BREATHING OR VARIABLE RR WITH SHORT PERIODS OF APNEA (<20 SECONDS>)
EARLY HYPOXIA IN A CHILD WOULD LIKELY PRESENT WITH AN _____________________ IN HEART RATE. LATE HYPOXIA WILL PRESENT WITH _______________________.
INCREASED

DECREASED
THE BLOOD PRESSURE MOST LIKELY WILL BE ________________________ DURING COMPENSATED SHOCK.
NORMAL
LIST FACTORS THAT WOULD MAKE IMMEDIATE TRANSPORT NECESSARY WITH A PEDIATRIC PATIENT.
CHILD HAS SERIOUS MOI, A PHYSIOLOGIC ABNORMALITY, POTENTIALLY SIGNIFICANT ANATOMIC ABNORMALITYM OR IF SCENE IS UNSAFE.
DURING RESPIRATORY ____________________ THERE IS A COMPENSATED STATE IN WHICH _______________ WORK OF BREATHING RESULTS IN _______________________ PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE
DISTRESS

INCDREASED

ADEQUATE
DIFFUSE RALES, RHONCHI AND WHEEZING IN AN INFANT ARE SIGNS OF ______________________ _____________________ INFLAMMATION.
Lower Airway Inflammation
WHAT PATIENT PRESENTATION WOULD LEAD YOU TO SUSPECT A FOREIGN BODY AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION?
MILD FBAO = STRIDOR, INCREASED WORK OF BREATHING, OK COLOR, SEVERE FBAO= CYANOTIC, AND UNCONSCIOUS ( UNI-LATERAL WHEEZING=BLOCKAGE IN MAIN STEM BRONCHI
APPROPRIATE MEDICATION TREATMENT FOR A CONSCIOUS CHILD WITH ANAPHYLAXIS IS?
EPINEPHRINE - 0.01 mg/kg 1:10,000 EVERY 5 MNUTES , 02, IV, FOR SHOCK

BENADRYL 1-2 mg/kg 02 IV, TO MAX DOSE OF 50 mg

THE PATIENT MAY PRESENT WITH DROOLING
EPIGLOTTITIS IN CHILDREN IS CAUSED BY WHAT INFECTIOUS AGENT?
CAUSED BY THE INFECTIOUS AGENT HAEMOPHIUS INFLUENZA TYPE B
A PATIENT WITH MODERATE TO SEVERE ASTHMA MAY PRESENT WITH WHEEZING ON ________________ AND ________________
INSPIRATION

EXPIRATION
WHAT IS THE MOST COMMON CAUSE OF BRONCHIOLITIS? WHAT AREA OF THE AIRWAY IS INFECTED? WHO IS AFFECTED MOST BY THIS DISEASE PROCESS?
RESPIRATORY SYNCTIAL VIRUS (RSV) BRONCIOLITIS IS AN INFLAMMATION OR SWELLING OF THE SMALL AIRWAY ( BRONCHIOLES) IN THE LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT. IT PRIMARILY AFFECTS INFANTS & SMALL CHILDREN UNDER 2 YEARS OLD.
WHEN INSERTING AN OROPHARYNGEAL AIRWAY IN A CHILD IF AVAILABLE, YOU SHOULD USE WHAT?
TONGUE DEPRESSOR
HOW DO YOU DELIVER VENTIALATION WITH A BVM FOR A CHILD? HOW DO YOU ASSESS THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THESE VENTILATION?
12-20 BREATHS PER MINUTE. SQUEEZE THE BAG GENTLY UNTIL YOU SEE CHEST RISE. EFFECTIVENESS IS DETERMINED BY EQUAL CHEST RISE & FALL
WHY SHOULD YOU USE A STRAIGHT BLADE DURING PEDATRIC INTUBATION?
THEY MAKE IT EASY TO LIFT THE FLOPPY EPIGLOTTIS TO PROVIDE A DIRECT VIEW OF THE VOCAL CORDS.
A (n) OROGASTRIC OR NASOGASTRIC TUBE WOULD THE MOST APPROPRIATE SIZE FOR A 4 YEAR OLD CHILD?
SIZE 9.0 THIS IS DETERMINED BY USING THE BRASLOW TAPE OR BY USING THE ENDOTRACHEAL TUBE CALCULATIONS AND DOUBLING THE ET TUBE SIZE

(AGE IN YEARS + 16) DIVIDED BY 4= UNCUFFED ET SIZE

FOR AGES 1 OR MORE GO 1/2 SIZE DOWN

SIZE FOR A 4 YEAR OLD IS FOUND BY: 4+16)/4=5
5-.5=4.5 4.5 X2=9.0 OG TUBE SIZE
SIGNS OF COMPENSATED SHOCK IN THE INFANT OR CHILD INCLUDES WHAT?
NORMAL APPEARANCE, TACHYCRDIA SIGNS OF DECREASED PERIPHERAL PERFUSION SUCH AS COOL EXTRIMITES AND PROLONGED CAPILLARY REFILL
WHEN CARING FOR AN INFANT OR CHILD WHO IS IN COMPENSATED SHOCK, WHEN SHOULD YOU ATTEMPT IV OR IO ACCESS?
EN ROUTE TO THE HOSPITAL
EARLY DISTRIBUTIVE SHOCK IN CHILDREN IS CHARACTERIZED BY WHAT?
DECREASED VASCULAR TONE RESULTING IN VASODILATION & THIRD SPACING OF FLUID DUE TO INCREASED VASULAR PREMEABILITY. EARLY ON THE CHILD MAY HAVE FLUSHED SKIN & BOUNDING PULSES AS A RESULT OF PERIPHERAL DILATION.
FAILURE OF A CHILDS Sp02 TO INCREASE DESPITE HIGH-FLOW OXYGEN IS MOST INDICATIVE OF WHAT?
CONGENTIAL HEART DISEASE
THE PERFERRED INITIAL PARMAOLOGIC AGENT FOR PEDIATRIC BRADYCARDIA IS WHAT?
SUPPLEMENTAL OXYGEN
AN APPROPRIATE VAGAL MANEUVER FOR AN INFANT WOULD BE?
PLACE AN EXAM GLOVE FILLED WITH ICE FIRMLY OVER THE MID-FACE, BEING CAREFUL NOT TO OBSTRUCT THE NOSE AND MOUTH.
CARDIOPULMONARY ARREST IN THE PEDIATRIC PATIENT IS MOST OFTEN A ________________ EVENT.
SECONDARY
PRIOR TO ADMINISTERING PHARMACOLOGIC THERAPY TO AN INFANT OR CHILD WITH PULSELESS VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, THE PARAMEDIC SHOULD PERFORM WHAT?
DEFIBILLATION
ETOMIDATE SHOULD BE AVOIDED AS AN INDUCTION AGENT IN PEDIATRIC INTUBATION IN THE PRESENCE OF ?
SEPTIC SHOCK
LIST SEVERAL EASILY CORRECTABLE PROBLEMS IN A CHILD WITH AN ALTERED MENTAL STATUS?
HYPOGLYCEMIA, HYPOXIA, OPIATE OVERDOSE TEMPERATURE
WHAT IS THE DIFFERNECE BETWEEN A SIMPLE & A COMPLEX FEBRILE SEIZURE?
SIMPLE= BRIEF, GENERALIZED TONIC-CLONIC SEIZURES LASTING LESS THAN 15 MINUTES. NO NEUROLOIGC ABNORMALITIES.

COMPLEX = LONGER THAN 15 MINUTES, FOCAL, OR OCCUR IN A CHILD WITH BASE LINE DEVELOPEMENTAL OR NEUROLOGIC ABNORMALITIES.
LIST 3 FRONT LINE MEDICATIONS AND DOSES USED TO TREAT PEDICATRIC SEIZURES?
DIAZEPAM 0.2-0.5 mg/kg

LORAZEPAM 0.05-0.2 mg/kg

MIDAZOLAM 0.1-0.3mg/kg
BETA BLOCKER INGESTION IN SMALL CHILDREN WOULD CAUSE WHAT SIGNS & SYMTOMS?
BRADYCARDIA
SORBITOL IS NOT RECOMMENDED FOR USE IN YOUNG CHILDREN BECUASE IT........
Cathartics such as Sorbitol or Magnesium Citrate are sometimes combined with activated charcoal. They work by speeding up elimination. In general, cathartics are not recommended for young children because they have been known to cause significant diarrhea with serious-sometimes life-threatening- electrolyte abnormalities
IDENTIFY THE RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME
MALE SEX, PREMATURITY, LOW BIRTH WEIGHT, YOUNG MATERNAL AGE, SLEEPING IN THE PRONE POSITION, SLEEPING WITH SOFT/BULKY BLANKETS AND SOFT OBJECTS
WHAT FORMS OF CHILD MALTREATMENT ARE OFTEN DIFFICULT TO IDENTIFY AND MAY GO UNREPORTED, WHY?
EMOTIONAL ABUSE & CHILD NEGLECT
BRUISES THAT OCCUR _________________ ARE REARELY INCURRED ACCIDENTALLY.
IN IDENTIFIABLE PATTERNS, SUCH AS:

BELT BUCKLES
LOOPED CORDS OR
STRAIGHT LINES
WHAT INTRATHORACIC INJURIES ARE CHILDREN MORE VULNERABLE TO THAN ADULTS WITH CHEST TRAUMA?
PULMONARY CONTUSION
CARDIAC TAMPONADE AND
DIAPHRAGMATIC RUTURE
THE GENERAL AREA OF A CHILDS BODY THAT SUSTAINS INITIAL TRAUMA AFTER BEING STRUCK BY AN AUTOMOBILE DEPENDS ON WHAT?
THE CHILDS HEIGHT AND THE HEIGHT OF THE VEHICLES BUMPER.
TO ENSURE THAT AN INFANT'S HEAD IS IN A NEUTRAL POSITION DURING SPINAL IMMOBILIZATION, YOU SHOULD?
PLACE A TOWEL UNDER THE SHOULDER BLADES
WITH A BURNED CHILD, A ___________ SKIN SURFACE TO BODY MASS RATIO _______________ HIS OR HER SUSCEPTIBILITY TO HEAT & ______________ LOSS
LARGER

INCREASES

FLUID
A CHILD'S VOCAL CORDS CAN BE DIFFICULT TO VISUALIZE DURING INTUBATION BECAUSE?
EPIGLOTTIS IN A CHILD IS MORE FLOPPY AND OMEGA-SHAPED SO IT MUST BE LIFTED OR POSITIONED, OUT OF THE WAY TO VISUALIZE THE VOCAL CORDS.
WHAT AGES ARE CONSIDERED TO BE A PRESCHOOL AGE CHILD? WHAT ARE SOME TIPS FOR CONDUCTING A HEAD TO TOE EXAM ON THIS TYPE OF PATIENT?
3 TO 5 YEARS OLD

TAKE ADVANTAGE OF HE CHILD'S CURIOSITY, RICH FANTASY LIFE & DESIRE TO COOPERATE. LET THEM HOLD EQUIPMENT THAT IS SAFE, AVOID YES/NO QUESTIONS AND SET LIMITS ON THEIR BEHAVIOR
DO NOT LET A DISTRAUGHT OR _______________ PARENT INTERFERE WITH YOUR CARE. YOUR FIRST PRIORITY IS ______ ________________
AGGRESSIVE

THE CHILD
A CONSCIOUS CHILD WHO IS IN THE SNIFFING POSITION ON THEIR OWN IS TRYING TO DO WHAT?
THEY ARE TRYING TO ALIGN THE AIRWAY TO INCREASE PATENCY & IMPROVE AIRFLOW SUCH A POSITION REFLECTS A SEVERE UPPER AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION.
A CHILD HAS BEEN BREATHING RAPIDLY WITH AN INCREASED WORK OF BREATHING IS NOW BECOMING FATIGUED. WHAT RATE MAY WE OBSERVE WHEN WE ARRIVE?
RESPIRATORY FAILURE.

TACHYPNEA THEN BRADYPNEA THEN APNEA
TO EVALUATE FUNCTIONS OF AN INFANT'S OR CHILD'S CEREBRAL CORTEX YOU SHOULD USE THE __________ SCALE
GCS or AVPU Scale
WHEN AN INFANT OR CHILD IS IN RESPIRATORY FAILURE THEY CAN NO LONGER ___________________. THIS CAUSES _______________ AND _____________________.
COMPENSATE

HYPOXIA

CO2 RETENTION
IF YOU HAVE REASON TO BELIEVE THAT AN UNRESPONSIVE CHILD HAS A FOREIGN BODY AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION, YOU SHOULD:
LOOK INSIDE MOUTH, IF YOU SEE THE OBJECT, REMOVE IT. IF NOT BEGIN CPR
THE GOAL IN TREATING A CHILD WITH EPIGLOTTITIS IS TO DO WHAT?
GET THE CHILD WITH EPIGLOTTITIS TO AN APPROPRIATE HOSPTIAL WITH A MAINTAINABLE AIRWAY
TO MAINTAIN A NETURAL AIRWAY POSITION IN A UNREPSPONSIVE INFANT, YOU SHOULD:
USE A SHOULDER ROLL IN AN INFANT WITHOUT TRAUMA TO POSITION THE AIRWAY IN A NEUTRAL POSITION. / HEAD TILT-CHIN IF PATIENT IS WITHOUT TRUAMA OR JAW THRUST MANEUVER WITH TRAUMA
EVEN WHEN BVM VENTILATING WITH THE BEST TECHNIQUE, THE PATEINT MAY _____________ AND ___________STOMACH CONTENTS.
REGURGITATE

ASPIRATE
WHAT SHOULD BE DONE PRIOR TO INSERTING AN NG OR OG TUBE IN AN UNRESPONSIVE CHILD?
ET INTUBATION SHOULD BE DONE FIRST TO REDUCE THE RISK OF VOMITING AND ASPIRATION.
IF A CHILD IS IN DECOMPENSATION SHOCK WITH HYPOVOLEMIA, WHEN SHOULD YOU BEGIN FLUID RESUSCITATION?
AT THE SCENE
YOU SHOULD BE SUSPICIOUS FOR CARDIOGENIC SHOCK IN AN INFANT OR CHILD WHEN PERFUSION _______________ FOLLOWING A __________________ ____________________
WORSENS

FLUID BOLUS
WHAT COMPONENTS ARE USED TO DISTINGUISH SINUS TACHYCARDIA FROM RE-ENTRY SUPRAVENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA?
PT HISTORY IS THE COMPONENT USED TO DISTINGUISH. SINUS TACH hx WILL INCLUDE FEVE, VOLUME LOSS, HYPOXIA, PAIN, INCREASE IN ACTIVITY OR EXERCISE. SVT WILL INCLUDE CONGENTIAL DISEASES, KNOWN hx OF SVT
MEDICATION TREATMENT FOR PEDIATRIC ASYSTOLE INCLUDES WHAT?
EPI AND A SINGLE DOSE VASOPRESSIN
YOUNG CHILDREN WITH MENINGITIS RARELY SHOW _____________ _____________ WHICH IS A CLASSIC SIGN OF MENINGEAL IRRITATION IN ADULTS.
NUCHAL RIGIDITY ( NECK STIFFNESS)
WHAT IS THE REALATIONSHIP BETWEEN HAVING FEBRILE SEIZURES AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF BRAIN DAMAGE OR LEARING DISABILITIES?
THERE IS NO RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE DIAGNOSIS
THE MANAGEMENT FOR ANY POTENTIALLY TOXIC EXPOSURE IN CHILDREN BEGINS BY?
PROVIDING SUPPORTIVE CARE & ATTENTION TO THE ABC'S
FEVER IN INFANTS YOUNGER THAN 2 MONTHS OF AGE IS DEFINED AS A BODY TEMPERATURE THAT IS __________degrees F OR GREATER
100.4
AN INFANT OR SMALL CHILD WHO FALLS FROM A SIGNIFICANT HEIGHT WOULD LIKELY EXPERIENCE A TRAUMATIC _____________________ _________________
BRAIN INJURY
IN YOUNG CHILDREN, AIR BAGS POSE A PARTICULAR THREAT FOR INJURIES TO THE _______ AND ________
HEAD AND NECK
YOU WOULD LIKELY ENCOUNTER A CHILD WITH TRACHEOSTOMY TUBE BREATHING SPONTANEOUSLY ON ROOM AIR IF:
THE FUNCTION OF THE TUBE IS SIMPLY TO BYPASS THE MECHANICAL UPPER AIRWAYOBSTRUCTION
MOST CHILDREN BEGIN TO DEELOP STRANGER ANXIETY BETWEEN THE AGE OF ____ AND ______ MONTHS OF AGE
6 AND 12
WHAT ARE SOME OF THE ISSUES THAT MAKES ASSESSMENT & TREATMENT OF ADOLESCENTS DIFFICULT?
THE AGE GROUP IS STRUGGLING WITH ISSUES OF INDEPENDENCE, BODY IMAGE, SEXUALITY, AND PEER PRESSURE
A SICK OR INJURED CHILD'S GENERAL APPEARANCE IS REFLECTIVE OF THEIR __________ ___________ ________________ FUNCTION.
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
WHAT IS AROCYANOSIS? WHEN MAY YOU FIND THIS?
THIS IS THE BLUISH COLORING OF THE HANDS AND FEET DUE TO THE SHUNTING OF THE BLOOD TO THE CORE OF THE BODY, USAUALLY SEEN AT BIRTH AND UP TO 2 MONTHS OF AGE
IF YOU CAN NOT PALPATE THE FEMORAL PULSE IN AN UNRESPONSIVE INFANT YOU SHOULD:
START CPR
WHICH PMH DETAILS IS OFTEN NOT ACQUIRED DURING THE SAMPLE HISTORY OF AN ADULT BUT SHOULD BE ROUTINELY ACQUIRED IN AN INFANT OR CHILD?
Hx OF THE PREGNANCY, LABOR, AND DELIVERY
CRYING AND THRASHING IN RESPONSE TO APPLICATION OF A NASAL CANNULA IN A CHILD YOU __________________ METABOLIC DEMANDS & _________________ CONSUMPTION. YOU MUST __________________ THE POTENTIAL ____________________ OF THIS TREATMENT AGAINST THE POTENTIAL COST.
INCREASE
OXYGEN
WEIGH
BENEFITS
CROUP IS CAUSED BY WHAT? WHAT AREAS ARE AFFECTED? WHAT SOOUND SHOULD BE HEARD WITH CROUP?
CAUSED BY A VIRAL INFECTION OF THE UPPER AIRWAY. USUALLY AFFECTS THE SUBGLOTTIC SPACE AND IS HEARD AS STRIDOR OR A SEAL BARK COUGH.
MEDICATIONS USED TO PREVENT AN ASTHMA ATTACK INCLUDE WHAT?
Inhaled Steroids are most common
NASOPHARYNGEAL AIRWAYS ARE RARELY USED IN CHILDREN YOUNGER THAN 1 YEAR OF AGE BECAUSE:
BECAUSE OF THE SMALL DIAMETER OF THEIR NARES WHICH TEND TO BECOME EASILY OBSTRUCTED BY SECRETIONS.
AN APPROPRIATE ET TUBE FOR A 6 YEAR OLD CHILD IS:
5.5 mm (6+16)/4= 5.5
INFANTS AND CHILDREN IN SHOCK COMPENSATE BY:
BY SHUNTING BLOOD FROM THE PERIPHERY, INCREASING PULSE RATE AND INCREASING VASCULAR TONE
A CHILD IN ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK THAT HAS REQUIRED MULTIPLE EPI DOSES:
MAY REQUIRE A LOW DOSE CONTINUOUS EPI IV
DRIP
FIRST DEGREE HEART BLOCK IN CHILDREN:
IS AN ASYMPTOMATIC, OFTEN INCIDENTAL FINDING SEEN ON ECG W/ SLIGHT PROLONGATION OF THE PR IINTERVAL AND NO TREATMENT IS REQUIRED
IF AN INTIAL CARDIOVERSION ATTEMPT IS UNSUCCESSFUL IN A 33 POUND CHILD, YOU SHOULD REPEAT THE PRODEURE USING _______JOULES:
30 33/2.2 = 15 kg 15kg x 2j=30j
DUCTAL-DEPENDANT ON GENITAL HEART DEFECTS TYPICALLY PRESENT WITH ____________ IN THE NEONATAL PERIOD
INCREASING RESPIRATORY DISTRESS, POOR PERFUSION, CYANOSIS
WHAT CLINICAL PRESENTATIONS ARE CONSISTENT WITH COCAINE INGESTION IN A CHILD?
TACHYCARDIA, HTN, HYPERTHERMIA, DILATED PUPILS, SWEATING
THE USE OF LORAZEPAM FOR SEIZURES IN THE PREHOSPITAL SETTING IS LIMITED BY ITS:
REQUIREMENT TO BE REFRIGERATED
ANY CHILD WITH UNEXPLAINED HYPERPNEA SHOULD BE SUSPECTED OF HAVING ___________TOXICITY.
SALICYLATE
LIST THE CHILD ABUSE MNEMONIC FOR SUSPICION OF CHILD ABUSE
C-CONSISTENCY OF THE INJURY WITH CHILD'S DEVELOPMENTAL AGE.

H= HISTORY INONSISTENT WITH INJURY
I= INAPPROPRIATE PARENTAL CONCERN
L= LACK OF SUPERVISION
D= DELAY IN SEEKING CARE
A= AFFECT (PARENT TO CHILD & CHILD TO PARENT)
B= BRUISES IN VARYING STAGES OF HEALING
U= UNUSUAL INJURY PATTERNS
S= SUSPICIOUS CIRCUMSTANCES
E = ENVIRONMENTAL CLUES
IN CONTRAST TO ADULTS YOUNG CHILDREN ARE MORE PRONE TO LIVER AND SPLEEN INJURIES BECAUSE THE ORGANS:
ARE RELATIVELY LARGER & LOCATED MORE ANTERIORLY IN THE CHEST & ABDOMEN WITHOUT THE PROTECTION OF THE RIB CAGE
SEVERAL CYCLES OF CHEST COMPRESSIONS HAVE FAILED TO REMOVE A FOREIGN BODY AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION IN AN UNRESPONSIVE INFANT, YOUR NEXT ACTION SHOULD BE TO:
PERFORM DIRECT LARYNGOSCOPY
WHAT IS THE INITIAL JOULE SETTING FOR THE PEDIATRIC IN CARDIAC ARREST?
2.0 JOULES PER kg