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70 Cards in this Set

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Sumerians
-believe that ordinary lives had no meaning
-kings ruled as gods
-advanced political and econmic structure
-lion hunting
-self-preservation
-warfare,
Egypt
-prospered in Nile Valley
-upper class enjoyed luxery
-rec. activitied: swim, hunting, ball games, games of chance
-lower class trained for military (arhcery, foot speed, hand/hand combat)
-dancing, tumbling, singing
China
-most civilized & influential country in East Asia
-Feudalistic (city states)
-based on need for survival: military training, archery, hunting for food
-mongal invations brought horses
-from boxing merged mat. arts
**evovled ito a relationship w/ mind and body
Mesoamericans
-N. Mexico to El Salvador
-Ulama= ballgame (rubber ball, strong rel. overtones)
4 olympic games
Stephantic Games
Delphi-pythian games
Corinth- Isthmian games
Nema- Namean games
Athens
-rich land
-slowly became representative
-women had NO rights
Sparta
-economical problems
-controlling oligarchy
-infant selection
-boy taken at 7 for military training
Athletic events at olympics
-foot races
-discus throwing
-javelin
-long jump
-wrestling
-boxing
-pankration (comb. of boxin and wrestling)
-equestrian
Dark Ages
-collapse of Rome
-lack of physical sport
-christian response: God deals w/ souls, not bodies
-very dark sports (throwing spears & knives, hawking...)
Middle Ages
-feudalistic; walled castels
-nobles, knights, serfs
-physical ed. ad intellence were separated
-church played a large role
-church was divided over role of the body: body created by God OR body as an instrument of sin
St. Thomas Aquinas
-theme: Education thru the pysical
-said that physical fitness was a possitive for moral and social well-being
- "we come to know things thru our body as well as minds
-God in all things including body
-church opposed many events b/c of gambling, violence...
The Renaissance
-the rebirth of classical thought
-changed thought about ed.
-rise of nation-state took control away from china (the crusades)
-the bubonic plaue
-humanists philosophy: rejected original sin, body and sould together is "universal man"
The Refromation
-birth of Angelican chruch (Henry the Vill)
-Primarily a religious movement
-Impact on education was huge (reduced middle man)
John Calvin
-viewed time as each moment was God-given
-Predistination, those predestined would act a certain way
-play was avoided, time was spent working and in prayer
-protestant work ethic
The Puritans
Opposed sport because of:
1. violence, drinking, sunday observance
2. a person who was predestined would not waste time on frivolous activities
3. needed to work, had to get crops in and out b4 winter~ for survival

did have some forms of hunting, fishing, dancing, and walking
The Tavern
-rest for travelers, "get away" for others
-tavern owners were 1st known sport promoters
-Games were: marksmanship (turkey shoot), cockfighting, boxing, horse racing
-needed to set RULES
-no women
-brought sport to a diff. level
**Sport in Colonial America
-many facrots influenced the type of sport in colonial america:
1. weather
2. buisness (agric....)
3. technology
4. religion
5. ancestory
Sport in Colonial North
-New England, English
- tavern act. seen here
- leisure activites were channeled toward self-preservation
-harshness of life dictated many things
Sport in Mid-Atlantic
-Dutch influences seen in Penn, NY
-Dutch felt little or no restraint form the pleasure of leisure
-dutch settelers danced, played cards, chess...
-In country: skating, sleigh ridig, Kolf (golf/hockey)
-In city: Kaetzen (soccer), King Pin, clubbing the cat
Southern Colonies
-sport was a function of class
-left England for diff. reasons
-assiciated w/ catholic church
-englsih life, customs, gov
-came for $, new life, life of prosperity
-accumulaiton of property, slaves
-began sport w/out flexing a muscle ****gambling was a core activiy
- Horse racing- sometimes ended in court, jockeys were slaves
Frontier Sport
-Kentucky, Indiana, Ohio, Illinois
-paradox of rugged indv. vs. cooperation
-self-preservation, barn raising, ploughing,
-contests, fairs, harvest festivals
-wrestling, gauging, boxing, log rolling, shooting
-tavern played a big role
Native American & Baggataway
-Father Jean de Brebeuf: 1st to describe the game La Crosse
-played by every Indian tribe
-women played a similar game
-deep rel. and healing
-sometimes called: lil warfare
-diff. tribes had diff. rules
-highly organized: diff. # of ppl played (100-500), timeouts, strategy,
Summary of Colonial Period
-lil or no organization
-physical ed non-existant
-rel. factors
-socio-economic factor
-team vs. ind.
Fredrick Jahn
-faith and work in p.e. originated from patriotic motives
-hung around boys schools & watched them play @ recess and started to name the movements and how to teach them
-started to organized competative running, jumping, wrestling...
-thought boys needed to be tougher
-jailed for 7 years for being connected to an assasin
-His book "Die Deutsche Turnkust" became the quide for the tavern movement
Thoughts of Jahn
-thought teachers should be an ex, couteous, enthusiastic, know each student
-aware of the power of games & sport to break down class distinction
Turners
-turner society abolished for almost 20 years after the liberation of Prussia German
***Persecuted leaders came to America
-Fredrick william recognized turnen as a necesary part of education
Summary
-served as import. instrument of social change in Germany
-Formalized a system of P.E
-exported their ideas
Charles Follen
-follower of Jahn & turnen movement
-lawyer
-found guilty of conspiracy
-escaped to America
-Teaching pos. @ harvard
-started teaching gymnastics at Boston gym
***Charles Beck
-Follower of Jahn
-persecuted in his own country
-met Follen
-went to America & hired by round Hill school
-1st PE teacher in America
Francis Lieber
-follower of Jahn
-Arrested same time as Jahn
-escaped to London
-was Follens successor at Boston Gym
**What were 3 systems of gymnastics at the Boston conference?
German, American, Swedish
German system
-mandetory gymnastics
-military like
-complicated
Sweedish system
-unifying relationships of mind, body, & duty
- thought German system was too complicted
-positions were held & corrected
-looking for "demonstrative effect"
-exercises had to:
1. have gymnastic value (graceful movement)
2. have to overcome faulty tendencies ( flex, weight..)
3. physiological truth
4. promote muscular dev.
**teacher training a necesity
D. Nils Posse
-born of sweedish nobility
-came to boston to interest physicians in sweedish gym
-Boston pub. schools
-opened Posse normal school of gymn.
Amy Morris Homans
- moved to south after civil war
-met Mary Hemenway, widow of wealthy shipping manag.
-taught in Boston Normal school (part of Boston college) funded by Mary
Catherine Beecher
-founded & director of the Hartford femal seminary (most famous institution of high ed. for women)
-taught basic hygiene
-believe PE provided grace of mov./ posture/ good health/
-actively struggled for PE in the school curriculim
Dio Lewis
-light gymnastics, music
-borrowed ideas from Beecher & Ling
-opened Normal institute for physical ed. in Boston, 1st teacher training school for physical ed.
*** wife died from health issues so he was BIG on womens health
Edward Hitchcock, Md
-prof. of PE & hygiene @ Amherst college
-anthropometrics (measurements of the perfect athelete)
-he measured almost eery Amh. student to find the perf. ath.
-sample group: white, wealthy, well fed girls & guys (racist)
premodern sport
-organization: either nonexist. or sporadic
-rules: simple, unwritten & based on customs and are diff. from place to place
-competition: locally meaningful contests only, no natl recog.
role differentiation: low rd amoung particip. & loose distinction b/t playing & spect. roles
-pub info.: is limited, local and oral
-stats & records: nonexist.
modern sport
-organization: formal organizations, diff. at the local, reg., & natl. level
-rules: formal, standardized & written,
-competition: natl & internatl competions, chance to establish natl & internatl reputation
role differ: ^ rd, had specialists & strict distincitons b/t playing & spect. roles
pub. info: reported reg. in newsppr & sports journals, specialized mags, guidebks
-stats & recs: kept, published reg., records are santions by natl assoc
basic causes of organized sport??
industrialization & urban movement
indust. Rev
-make a better econ.
-contributes to: +pop,-land supply, + comp. b/t nations
-advances in transp. & comm
-living cond. were bad (led to YMCA)
-urbanization
-
how did indust. rev. change our lives in relation to sport?
- labor unions, big buis.
-view on time: time=$
-family dyn. changed: kids moved to cities
-less church influence
-social mobility- ppl could get ahead
causes for innovation of sport
railroad, printing press, telegraph, rubber balls, light bulb
1st modern sport
horseracing- had organization, was sectional- north v. south
2nd modern sport
boxing
-slaves fought for freedom
John Sulivan
-was a heavy wt. chamo
-started career w/ bar fiths, never lost
-Queensbury rules introdoced at this time
-he went on tour to promote his fights and offered & to anyone who could beat him
**was the key link b/t premod. & mod sport
baseball
-natl pastime
-urban influence, NY
-townball
-abner doubleday LEGEND- watched townball & wrote rules
-Alexander Cartwrite: fathe of baseball
-1st team: NY knickerbockers
-civil war spread it
*** baseball leads the fight of racial integration but its 20 yrs ahead
cincinnati Red stockings
-1st pro team
Adrian "cap" Anson
-1st baseball star
-played for phil. Athletics & chi white stockings
-1st to 3000 hits
-bat over 300 for over 20 yrs
reverse clause
if someone signs w/ a team they have to stay - no free agents
A.G. Spaulding
-promoter: spaulding ath. equip, brought ath. equip to mases, devel. glove
-baseball player
-promoted doubleday myth
-buisness man: made ump/catcher equip
moses fleetwood walker
afr. amer. fo the time
baseball in G.R.
-tigers played in GR
-field was bad and it cost to much for dutch 50 cents
-2,000 games in a row
football
-originated from rugby
-violent begg, not knee down! had to be controlled
-Harvard: football became a catalysts for sport being in ed. instit.
Walter camp
-father of football
-palyed & coached @ Yale
-sat on every rules committee
-made the rules of football
Muscular Christianity
-term rose in England, Thomas Hughes & Clark Kingsley
-concerned about physical weakness in church
-can't be out of shape and moral
-"body is a temple"
-ppl rejected the feminization of American & health of Am. women
why did the concept of Musc. Christianity spread quickly
1. atheltic dev.- decline in antisport in church
2. YMCA
3. character building
YMCA
-George Williams started a "library- bible study" for urban males b/c they needed a place to go
-religious study & reflection
- came to Boston
- part of gymnastics
-Robert J Roberts orig. trainer
-Dr. luther Gulick, med. dr that like sports
-Springfield college was the 1st college to train trainers
Dr. James Naismith
-Dr. James Naismith
-connection to the Y
-went to study under Gulick @ springfield
-invented basketball so that men had somthing to do outside
-had 13 rules
William Morgan
-invented volleyball
-needed to come up w/ a game that was less demanding than basketball
-didn't make you sweat on work break
1st Pe teacher
Charles Beck
boxer that transitioned premod-mod sport
John sullivan
what motivated fredrick jahn
patriotic movements
who was concerend w/ womens health
Catherin Beacher, Dio Lewis,
sparta v. athens
sparta: ed of the physical
athens: about the mind
why were roman gladiators politacally motivated
- to keep ppl occupied, not get bored and cuase trouble
4 characteristics that helped define sport
1. communication
2. transportation
3. rules
4. role differential
5. stats
name 4 advances that helped sport
1.railroad
2. telegraph
3. light bulbs
4. printing press
5. rubber balls
describe a day in the colcium
1. animal v animal
2. christian v. animal (lion_
3. pol. prisoner v. gladiator
4. wounded glad. v. favotite glad.
5. gladiator v. gladiator
Why it the turnen movement so closly related to PE in this oounty
-started as a politcal movement
-in Germay tied to school b/c assigned to playground
-it comes to america (charels follen)
-becomes part of our schools Pe, gymnastics