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216 Cards in this Set

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What is the sole purpose of the digestive system?
Extract useful nutrients from ingested food and fluids
The digestive system is simply a "long tube" going through the body. What is the name given to this "tube"?
Alimentary canal
The 'alimentary canal' consists of 6 parts. What are they?
1. Oral cavity
2. Pharynx
3. Esophagus
4. Stomach
5. Small intestine
6. Large intestine
The digestive system has organs which are not part of the alimentary canal, but aid in digestion. What is the general name of all of these organs?
Accessory organs
There are 6 accessory organs that aid in digestion. What are they?
1. Pancreas
2. Gallbladder
3. Liver
4. Salivary glands
5. Teeth
6. Tongue
What is 'enteritis', and what is it commonly called and caused by?
Inflammation of the intestinal mucosal lining.

Commonly called intestinal flu.

Caused by viruses, bacteria, or certain foods.
What is the common meaning for 'deglutition'?
Swallowing
What are some of the characteristics of the 'oral cavity'? (There are 6 of them)
1. Ingest food
2. Receive saliva
3. Mastication
4. Digestion of carbohydrates
5. Formation of 'bolus' (food mass)
6. Deglutition (swallowing)
What are some of the characteristics of the 'pharynx'? (There are 3 of them)
1. Receive bolus from oral cavity
2. Autonomically continues deglutition of bolus
3. Passes to 'esophagus'
What are some of the characteristics of the 'esophagus'? (There are 2 of them)
1. Moves bolus to stomach via peristalsis (muscle moving waves)
2. Esophageal sphincter restricts back-flow of food
Which sphincter restricts the back-flow of food from the esophagus to the pharynx?
Esophageal sphincter
What is 'peristalsis'?
The movement of a bolus via the muscles in the esophagus/intestines.
What are some of the characteristics of the 'stomach'? (There are 7 of them)
1. Receives bolus from esophagus
2. Churns bolus w/ gastric juice and forms chyme
3. Digestion of proteins
4. Limited absorption
5. Chyme moves to duodenum
6. Back-flow of chyme prohibited
7. Can vomit
What is 'chyme'?
Chemical breakdown of a bolus when mixed with gastric juices
What are some of the characteristics of the 'small intestine'? (There are 5 of them)
1. Receives chyme from stomach
2. Chemically/Mechanically breaks down chyme
3. Absorbs nutrients
4. Transports wastes via peristalsis to large intestine
5. Prohibits back-flow of intestinal wastes from large intestine
What are some of the characteristics of the 'large intestine'? (There are 4 of them)
1. Receives undigested waste from small intestine
2. Absorbs water and electrolytes
3. Forms and stores feces
4. Expels waste via defecation reflex
Where does digestion start and how?
Starts in the mouth with saliva and is broken down into smaller particles
Mastication (chewing) is important because it does what to the food? Why is this important?
Increases the surface area of the food

Rate of digestion depends on the total surface area exposed
There are 3 processed involved with digestion that start in the mouth. What are they?
1. Mastication (chewing)
2. Food is lubricated w/saliva
3. Digestion starts w/amylase
What does 'amylase' do?
ONLY breaks down starch/carbohydrates
What do the salivary glands secrete, and where do they secrete?
1. Saliva
2. Buccal cavity
Saliva contains a substance that acts as an antibiotic. What is it?
Lysozyme
Saliva secretion is stimulated by 3 things. What are they?
1. Taste
2. Smell
3. Tactile stimuli w/tongue
What is the daily amount of saliva secretion?
800-1500 ml
What is the pH of saliva?
6-7
What is the percentage of H2O and solutes in saliva?
H2O = 99.5%
Solutes = 0.5%
True of False:

The salivary glands are under sympathetic control.
FALSE

Salivary glands are under PARASYMPATHETIC control

(Rest/Digest)
There are 3 paired glands involved in saliva secretion. What are the 3 paired glands?
1. Large parotid
2. Submandibular gland
3. Sublingual gland
Which two salivary glands secrete both serous and mucous enzymes?
1. Submandibular gland
2. Sublingual gland
What salivary gland secretes only serous fluid-enzymes?
Large Parotid
What are the characteristics of 'mumps'?
Viral disease of the parotid salivary gland
What are the characteristics of 'parotitis' disease?
Inflammation of parotid gland
What are the characteristics of 'ptyalocele' disease?
Cystic tumor of a salivary gland
How many taste buds do humans have? How many taste cells are there per bud?
4000 Taste buds

30-100 Taste cells/bud
What type of receptors are involved in taste?
Chemoreceptors
The esophagus is a 'thin' muscular tube that moves food from the ________ to the _______.
Pharynx to the Stomach
How long is the 'esophagus'?
10-12 inches long
Where is the 'esophagus' located behind?
the trachea
The lower end of the esophagus has a sphincter that is called by two names. What are they?
1. Cardiac sphincter
2. Gastroesophageal sphincter
The esophageal sphincters prevent what from entering into the esophagus?
Stomach acid
What are some of the characteristics of 'heartburn'?
Regurgitation of gastric contents into esophagus

Epithelial layer is 'burned' away

(G.E.R.D) - Gastro Esophagial Reflux Disorder
What is the definition of 'achalasia'?
Lower esophageal sphincter (cardiac sphincter) fails to relax.
Someone with 'achalasia' will have which of the following symptoms? (There are 4 of them)
1. Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing)
2. Substernal pain (mimics angina)
3. Food may remain in esophagus for hours
4. Possible regurgitation into pharynx
What are the characteristics of 'angina'?
Painful constriction or tightness somewhere in the body
What are some of the causes of 'achalasia'? (There are 3 of them)
1. Abnormal parasympathetic stimulation
2. Drinking cold liquids
3. Excess gastrin secretion
What are some of the management solutions for possible 'achalasia'?
Ruling out possible heart problems

Surgery or use of special dilating balloon to expand esophagus
What is the scientific name for an esophageal tumor and what are the characteristics of them?
Carcinoma

Obstruction of the esophagus

Accounts for about 2% of all cancer deaths in the U.S.
What does 'nitroglycerin' do?
Causes smooth muscle to relax
'Nitroglycerin' can help two specific disorders. What conditions are they?
1. Angina (Problem w/heart)
2. Achalasia (Failure for muscle to relax)
Having a Hiatal Hernia has four common characteristics. What are they?
1. Dysphagia (difficult swallowing)
2. Heartburn
3. Epigastic pain
4. Gastroesophageal reflux
How long does it take the stomach to empty into the small intestines after eating a meal?
2-4 Hours
Why does very little absorption take places in the stomach?
Because tight junctions between epithelial cells line the stomach.
Which 3 substances are very common in the absorption in the stomach?
1. Aspirin
2. Alcohol
3. Water
What functions do the 'parietal cells' in the stomach have?
1. Secrete HCl
2. Secrete intrinsic factor
HCl that is secreted from parietal cells have what function in the stomach?
Kills bacteria in food
Converts pepsinogen to pepsin
'Intrinsic factor' that is secreted from parietal cells in the stomach have what function?
Allows ileum of small intestine to absorb 'VITAMIN B12'.

'VITAMIN B12' is required for 'erythropoiesis'
What functions do the 'mucus cells' in the stomach have?
Secrete mucus

Protects the stomach lining
What functions do the 'zymogenic cells' (chief cells) in the stomach have?
Secrete pepsinogen

In acidic conditions. Pepsinogen becomes pepsin.
What does the 'pepsin' enzyme do?
Digests proteins
Zymogenic cells are also called what kind of cells?
Chief cells
What are some of the characteristics of 'pyloric stenosis'?
Narrowing of pyloric sphincter
Projectile vomiting = 3-4 feet
Males = 5/1000
Females = 1/1000

Caused by enlargement of circular muscle fibers
What is the main treatment for 'pyloric stenosis'?
A 'pyloromyotomy'.

Muscle cells are split and separated.
What are all ulcers usually generally called?
Peptic ulcers
Peptic ulcers are usually caused when the stomach, esophagus or duodenum is attacked and digested by what TWO enzymes?
1. HCl
2. Pepsin
Where does a gastric ulcer occur?
Stomach
Where does a duodenal ulcer occur?
First part of the small intestine (Duodenum)
Where does a esophageal ulcer?
Lower part of the esophagus
There are 7 causes for peptic ulcers. What are some of them?
1. Stress
2. Poor eating habits
3. Excess vagal stimulation
4. Hypersecretion of HCl/Pepsin
5. Hypersecretion of adrenal coriticoids
6. Lack of mucus
7. Presence of irritating chemicals (steroids, anti-inflammatory agents, caffeine, alcohol, tobacco, or aspirin)
Approximately what percentage of the population has peptic ulcers?
10%
How are peptic ulcers usually treated?
Diet/drugs

Sometimes surgery
What drug helps ulcers by blocking H2 receptors in the stomach thus decreasing secretion of HCl?
Tagamet (#1 drug for over 10 yeras)
__% of all peptic ulcers are caused by ___________ ______?
1. 80%
2. Helicobacter pylori
In order to kill H. Pylori, what treatment is usually necessary?
3 different antibiotics taken 3 times a day
__% patients who are infected with H. Pylori will develop an ulcer in their lifetime.
20%
How does vomiting occur?
The relaxation of the cardiac sphincter

Strong contraction of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles
Vomiting may be caused by 6 different things, what are some of them?
1. Toxic food
2. Gagging
3. Excessive distension of the stomach
4. Intense pain
5. Dizziness
6. Sight or smell of things unpleasant to the person
Vomiting is considered to be a _______ mechanism that does what?
1. Defense mechanism
2. Get rid of hazardous waste
What is the 'small' intestine called small?
Because of the 'diameter'
How long is the small intestine?
20 feet
What are the characteristics of intestinal juice? (Color/Amount/pH)
1. Color = CLEAR
2. Amount = 1000-2000 ml/day
3. pH = 7.6
What percetage of digestion and absorption occur in the small intestine?
90%
What are the glands that secrete mucs to protect the small intestine from gastric juice?
Brunner's Glands
The small intestine is separated into three different division, what are the three divisions and how long is each one?
1. Duodenum (10-12 inches)
2. Jejunum (8 feet)
3. Ileum (12 feet)
Which division of the small intestine dumps into the large intestine?
Ileum
The small intestine produces 3 enzymes to help digest the three major food materials.

What are the 3 enzymes and what food material do they digest?
1. Peptidase - PROTEINS
2. Carbohydrase - CARBOHYDRATES
3. Lipase - FATS or LIPIDS
Small intestine receives external secretions from 2 other accessory organs. What are the 2 accessory organs?
1. Pancreas
2. Gall bladder
What is the large intestine also known as?
Colon
The large intestine is divided structurally into 3 parts. What are the 3 parts?
1. Cecum
2. Colon
3. Anal canal
What is the function of the ileocecal valve in the large intestine?
Prevent backflow to the ileum (small intestine)
The colon (large intestine) is separated into 4 sections. What are the 4 sections?
1. Ascending colon
2. Transverse colon
3. Descending colon
4. Sigmoid colon
Where is the appendix located and what is it attached to?
Located in the large intestine
Attached to the cecum
What are the 3 functions of the large intestine?
1. Absorption of water/electrolytes
2. Storage
3. Expulsion of feces from digestive
What is diarrhea?
Intestinal wall becomes irritated and peristalsis increases

Lack of absorption of water
helps body rid of infectious organisms.
What are the 2 major causes of diarrhea?
1. Infection of lower GI tract
2. Nervous stimulation
True or False:

Laxatives should be used whenever needed. The body can not become dependent on laxatives.
FALSE

Laxatives should ONLY be used when necessary because the body CAN become dependent on laxatives.
Constipation usually results from a diet that lacks what 2 things?
1. Water
2. Roughage
This helps provide increased regularity and MAY also help protect the body from colon cancer.
Fiber
There are 4 major types of laxatives. What are the 4 major types and what are some examples of the types?
1. Bulk Laxatives - Bran/Fiber
2. Lubricants - Mineral Oil
3. Mineral Salts - Magnesium. (Are not absorbed, increase osmotic pressure of fecal material)
4. Irritants - Speed up peristalsis
The appendix does not function in humans is prone to infection. In other animals what is it's function?
Home for bacteria that digest cellulose
What are some of the symptoms of appendicitis?
1. Severe pain in the right abdominal region
2. Tenderness/Swelling
If appendicitis is left untreated, what might occur?
Appendix may burst and cause infection to spread (Gut to Ab cavity)
What is 'peritonitis'?
When the appendix bursts and causes infection to spread from gut to lining of ab cavity
Irritable bowel syndrome is also often called __________.
Spastic colitis
What are the characteristics and causes of 'Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)'?
1. Abdominal discomfort
2. Irregular bowel function
3. Loud gurgling sounds

Caused by emotional stress
What is a colostomy?
Surgical procedure in which an abdominal exit is made for the colon. *(Colon bypass or 'bag')
What is dysentery?
Inflammation of intestinal mucosa with bleeding and mucus discharge with the stools.
Lipase breaks down fasts into what?
Glycerol and 3 fatty acids
The largest 'gland' of the body is the ______ weighing in at about __ pounds.
1. Liver
2. 3 pounds
The liver is composed of lobules that contain what type of cells? What do these cells produce?
1. Hepatocytes
2. Bile
What is the purpose of bile. How does it work?
Necessary for emulsification/digestion of fats

Increases surface area of fats
There are 8 functions of the LIVER. What are they?
1. Bile production
2. Storage of iron/copper
3. Storage of glucose
4. Synthesis/Storage/Release of Vitamins
5. Synthesis of fibrinogen/prothrombin used in clotting
6. Phagocytosis of foreign object in blood
7. Detoxification of substances in blood
8. Plasma protein synthesis
What 3 common proteins are synthesized in the liver?
1. Albumin
2. Fibrinogen
3. Angiotensinogen
What are the characteristics of 'Cirrhosis'. What may cause this disease?
Normal liver epithelium is replaced by connective tissue causing blockage of sinusoids

Alcohol/Malnutrition may cause cirrhosis
What are the characteristics of 'Hepatitis'?
Inflammation of the liver caused by viruses, protozoa and bacteria.
There are two types of Hepatitis. What are they?
1. Hepatitis Infectious (A)
2. Hepatitis Serum (B)
What are the characteristics of 'Jaundice'? What causes this disease?
Yellowish coloration of the skin and mucous membranes.

Caused by excessive accumulation of free or conjugated 'BILIRUBIN'.
What are some of the functions and characteristics of the gallbladder?
Sac-like organ attached to common bile duct that sits under the liver.

Stores/Concentrates and releases bile.
How much bile does the 'liver' secrete a day?
600-1000 bile ml/day
How much bile can the 'gallbladder' store? How concentrated is the bile stored here compared to that of the liver?
1. Storage = 30-70 ml

2. Up to 20 times more concentrated than bile from liver
How is bile regulated? (There are 3 steps)
1. Fat/Partially digested proteins in S.I. (small intestine) tract causes release of CCK (cholecystokinin)
2. Rhythmical contraction of the gallbladder
3. Peristaltic waves of duodenum relax sphincter of ampulla (*Vagal stimluation)
Where is 'cholecystokinin' (CCK) released from?
Intestinal mucosa
How are gallstones formed?
Precipitation of substances contained in bile (cholesterol/bilirubin)
What are the two major substances contained in bile?
Cholesterol
Bilirubin
There are 3 factors which cause cholesterol to become hyperconcentrated in the bile which causes gallstones. What are the 3 factors?
1. Stasis of bile (too much absorption of water)
2. High levels of cholesterol in blood
3. Inflammation of the gallbladder
Gallstones occur in about __% of the population.
20%
There are 4 factors that cause gallstones to be more common in the people, what are the 4 factors?
1. Obesity
2. Middle-aged
3. Diabetes
4. Female
What will happen is gallstones move into the bile duct?
Block flow of bile into the small intestines

Bile pigments become present in high concentration in the liver/other body fluids and tissues.

Jaundice occurs
What is the major mixed gland (endocrine/exocrine) of the body?
Pancreas
What are some characteristics and functions of the pancreas
Attached to the duodenum

Endocrine function of insulin and glucagon secretion into blood.

Exocrine function of digestive enzymes into the S.I. in response to presence of chyme in upper portion of the S.I.
How much fluid does the pancreas release each day? What is the pH of the fluid?
1200-1500 ml/day of fluid

pH = 7.1-8.2
The pancreas secretes 4 digestive enzymes. What are they?
1. Amylase
2. Lipase
3. Peptidase
Trypsin
Chymotrypsin
Carboxypeptidase
4. Bicarbonate
What is the function of 'amylase'?
Hydrolyzes starch and glycogen into disaccharides
What is the function of 'lipase'?
Converts fats into fatty acids and monoglycerols
What is the function of 'peptidases/proteolytic enzymes'?
(Trypsin/Chymotripsin/Carboxypeptidase)
Convert proteins or partially digested proteins into amino acids
What is the functions of 'bicarbonate'? (There are two of them)
Neutralizes acid in the stomach

Provides environment for pancreatic enzymes to function
What is 'Acute Pancreatitis'?
Damaged pancreas that builds a pool of secretions in damaged areas

Trypsin inhibitor is overwhelmed and secretions WILL digest the entire pancreas in a few hours
In 'Gastro-Intestinal Tract Regulation', there are 2 controls that regulate gastric secretion. What are the 2 controls?
1. Nervous Control
2. Hormonal Control
In 'Nervous Control' regulation of gastric secretion, there is one factor that regulates secretion. What is it and what three things does it cause to happen?
Increased parasympathetic activity (vagus nerve)

1. Increased gastric juice secretion
2. Increased contraction (Peristalsis/Segmentation)
3. Increased release of gastrin (hormone)
Where is gastrin released?
From the 'G cells' (enteroendocrine cells) from the walls of the stomach
What are the 4 factors that will stimulate secretion of gastrin from the 'Hormonal Control' system in G.I. tract regulation?
1. Food entering the stomach
2. Partially digested proteins
3. Alcohol/Caffeine
4. Histamine/Calcium
Gastrin causes 2 bodily functions to increase. What are they?
1. Increased gastric juice secretion
2. Increased peristalsis
What are the two hormones that help regulate pancreatic secretions?
1. Secretin
2. CCK (Cholecystokinin)
What are some of the characteristics of the 'Secretin' hormone? (There are 5 of them)
1. Secreted from 'S' cells when pH drops in duodenum

2. Travels in blood to pancreas. Pancreas causes secretion of pancreatic juice rich in 'BICARBONATE'

3. Bicarbonate neutralizes the acid.

4. This process prevents formation of ulcers in the S.I.

5. Also increases contraction of the pyloric sphincter
What are some of the characteristics of the 'Cholecystiokinin (CCK)' hormone? (
1. Released from 'I' cells in the duodenal/upper jejunal mucosa when proteins/fats/fatty acids enter the S.I.

2. Stimulate secretion of pancreatic juice rich in 'ENZYMES' for digestion.

3. Stimulates contraction of the gallbladder/release of bile to aid digestion of lipids
What are the effects of 'Acetylcholine' (ACh) on the regulation of pancreatic secretions? (There are 2 of them)
1. Released from parasympathetic system

2. Stimulates pancreatic secretion
What are the digestive enzymes that are PRODUCED in the 'pancreas'?(There are 5 of them)
1. Amylase
2. Trypsin
3. Chymotrypsin
4. Carboxypeptidase
5. Lipase (*Also produced in S.I.)
What are the digestive enzymes that are PRODUCED in the 'intestinal glands'? (There are 6 of them)
1. Maltase
2. Sucrase
3. Lactase
4. Aminopeptidase
5. Dipeptidase
6. Enterokinase
What is the digestive enzyme that is PRODUCED in the 'salivary gland'? (*Hint - This is also produced in the pancreas)
Amylase
What is the digestive enzyme that is PRODUCED in the 'Gastric glands' and functions in the stomach?
Pepsin
What is the digestive enzyme that is PRODUCED in the 'Liver'?
Bile
What is the digestive enzyme that is PRODUCED in the 'Small Intestine'? (*Hint - This is also produced in the pancreas)
Lipase
What are the 4 digestive enzymes that interact with 'CARBOHYDRATES'?
1. Amylase
2. Maltase
3. Sucrase
4. Lactase
What are the 7 digestive enzymes that interact with 'PROTEINS'?
1. Pepsin
2. Trypsin
3. Chymotrypsin
4. Carboxypeptidase
5. Aminopeptidase
6. Dipeptidase
7. Enterokinase
What are the 2 digestive enzymes that interact with 'LIPIDS'?
1. Bile
2. Lipase
What is the function of 'enterokinase'?
Digestive Enzyme for Proteins

Converts trypsinogen to trypsin

Functions in small intestine
Produced in intestinal glands
There are 2 digestive enzymes that do not function in the small intestine. What are they, their functions and where are they produced?
1. Amylase - Produced in the salivary glands, functions in the mouth and hydrolyzes starch to maltose.

2. Pepsin - Produced in the gastric glands, functions in the stomach and hydrolyzes specific peptide bonds.
What is the function of 'lactase'?
Hydrolyzes lactose to glucose and galactose
What is the function of 'maltase'?
Hydrolyzes maltose to 2 glucoses
What is the function of 'sucrase'?
Hydrolyzes sucrose to glucose and fructose
What is the function of 'amylase'?
Hydrolyzes starch to maltose
What are the functions of 'trypsin'? (*There are 2 of them)
Hydrolyzes specific peptide bonds.

Converts chymotrypsinogen to Chymotrypsin.
What are the common functions of the 'PROTEIN' digestive enzymes?
Hydrolyze specific peptide bonds
Metabolism is usually described by 2 processes. What are the 2 processes?
1. Anabolism
2. Catabolism
What is 'anabolism'?
Construction of complex molecules from simple building blocks (Amino acids to Complex protein)

Biosynthesis of proteins

*Anabolic steroids
What is 'catabolism'?
Breaking 'down' process

Glucose is broken down to yield energy and waste products.
What is the definition of 'digestion'?
Consumed food is broken down into small pieces to be absorbed into the blood stream
There are 3 main types that food can be broken down into?
1. Proteins (Amino Acids a.a.)
2. Fats (Fatty Acids & Glycerol)
3. Carbohydrates (Monosaccharides\Glucose)
True or False:

All three classes of nutrients (carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins) can be used to provide cellular energy and generally CAN be interconverted.
TRUE

They CAN be interconverted
What will happen is a person does not eat hardly any fat? How will their body create cellular energy?
The body will make fat from carboyhydrates and protein and use that to provide cellular energy
These 3 type of nutrients cannot be formed or interconverted, they must be ingested. What are they?
1. Essential amino acids
2. Vitamins
3. Minerals
There are only 3 major sources of carbohydrates that exist in the normal diet. What are they?
1. Sucrose (Cane Sugar)
2. Lactose (Milk Sugar)
3. Starches (Large Polysaccharides)
___________ are the body's major source of energy.
Carbohydrates
When carbohydrates get low, what does the body use as secondary or supplementary fuel?
Fats and Proteins
Nervous tissue can only utilize what as an energy source.
Glucose
What is the process of taking a fat to the final product in the digestive system? What is the final product?
Fat w/ Bile = Fat Globules
Fat Globules w/ Lipase = Glycerol and fatty acids
When proteins are digested they form amino acids. How is this process performed?
Proteins -> Polypeptides -> Small polypeptides and amino acids -> Amino acids
Absorption of food materials from the gut into the body occurs via 2 methods of transport. What are the two methods?
1. Active Transport
2. Diffusion
True or False

ALL electrolytes are easily absorbed and do not require active transport.
FALSE:

Some electrolytes REQUIRE Active Transport
What hormone will greatly increase the rate of transport of glucose into most cells?
Insulin
True or False

After transport into the cells, glucose can be used IMMEDIATELY for the release of energy to cells or be stored in the form of glycogen.
TRUE

Can be used immediately
Can be stored as glycogen
What is the process of making glycogen from glucose?
Glycogenesis
What is the process of breaking down glycogen to glucose?
Glycogenolysis
When the body breaks down one molecule of glucose, what does it turn into? (3 Things)
1. Carbon Dioxide
2. Water
3. Energy (ATP)
What are the two main processes in making energy (ATP)?
1. Glycolysis
2. Cell Respiration
Cell Respiration is broken down into 3 sub-processes. What are the 3 sub-processes?
1. Pyruvate Decarboxylation
2. Krebs Cycle
3. Electron Transport Chain
What is 'glycolosis'?
Splitting of glucose into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid.
How much ATP is formed from 'glycolysis'?
2 ATP
If not enough oxygen is available, what happens to cell respiration?
Cannot go beyond glycolysis
True or False:

Under 'anaerobic' conditions, cell respiration can occur and more then 2 ATP's are formed.
FALSE:

Under 'anaerobic' conditions, cell respiration CANNOT occur.

Only 2 ATP's are then formed.
What is the 'net result' of the 'Krebs Cycle' for each molecule of glucose?
Release of 16 Hydrogen atoms
Production of only 2 ATP
What is the 'net result' of the 'Electron Transport Chain' for each molecule of glucose?
32 ATP
What is the total amount of ATP produced in Glucose Catabolism? (Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport Chain)?
36 ATP
There is a __% efficiency of energy transferred and stored as ATP. The remaining __% is released as heat and not used for cellular function.
1. 66% Efficiency of Energy
2. 34% Released as Heat (Unused)
What percentage of the calories in our diet are derived from fats?
40-45%
What is the average percentage of carbohydrates that are converted into fatty acids and stored for energy usage later?
20-50%
True or False

Proteins (amino acids) cannot be converted into acetyl CoA.
FALSE:

Proteins CAN be converted into Acetyl CoA

(*Only if needed)
How much saliva is each of the three salivary glands responsible for secreting?
Paratid: 20%
Submandibular: 60%
Sublingual: 20%
True or false: All three sets of salivary glands produce mucous.
FALSE! All three sets produce serous fluid enzyme, but on the submandibular and sublingual produce mucous.
Where are the parotid glands located?
In front of the ear between the skin and masseter muscle
Where are the submandibular glands located?
Midway along the inner side of the jaw
Where is the sublingual gland located?
Under the mucosa in the floor of the mouth
There is a sphincter on each end of the stomach. One is highly developed and the other is not. Which is not very well developed and thus doesn't regulate effectively?
The lower esophageal sphincter (cardiac sphincter) is not well developed, whereas the pyloric sphincter is very highly developed.
What is a hiatal hernia?
the protrusion (herniation) of the upper part of the stomach through the diaphragm and into the thorax
What is the pH of gastric juice?
Urine?
Sweat?
Gastric Juice- 1.9-2.6
Urine- 5.7
Sweat- 4- 6.8
What is the pH of Saliva?
Breast milk?
Pancreatic juice?
Saliva- 6.4
Breast Milk- 7
Pancreatic Juice- 7.9
What takes place during pyruvate decarboxylation?
The two pyruvic acid molecules are converted into two molecules of acetyl coenyzme A
Protein in first chemically broken down in what?
STOMACH
Which of the following is absorbed in the stomach?

1. Protein
2. Fats
3. Sugar
4. Aspirin
4. ASPIRIN
Mumps is what?
A viral disease of the parotid 'salivary' glands
What is the pH of 'INTESTINAL JUICE'?
pH = 7.6
Which of the following is NOT released by the pancreas?

1. Trypsin
2. Amylase
3. Pepsin
4. Carboxypeptidase
3. PEPSIN
Gastrin is released by the ___________ cells in the stomach.
G CELLS
Secretin is released by the _________ and acts on the _________.
1. SMALL INTESTINE
2. PANCREAS
Glycogenolysis is what?
Breaking down GLYCOGEN to GLUCOSE.
The process of converting two pyruvic acid molecules into 2 molecules of acetyl CoA is known as what?
PYRUVATE DECARBOXYLATION
Which hormone is utilized when blood glucose levels DROP?
GLUCAGON