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56 Cards in this Set

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This is an anxiety disorder which primarily consists of the fear of experiencing a difficult or embarrassing situation from which the sufferer cannot escape
agoraphobia
the main feature of this disease is accumulation of copper in tissues, which manifests itself with neurological symptoms and liver disease
Wilson's disease

other manifestations include: dementia, mood disorders or psychosis and signs of asterixis (a flapping tremor of the hands) and parkinsonism (including ataxia, dyskinesia, and rigidity
what are Kayser-Fleischer rings
Rings seen around the iris; a sign of Wilson's disease, which involves abnormal copper handling by the liver
what does consciousness depend on?
The activity of the RAS and both cerebral hemispheres simultaneously
A state in which the person is not unconscious but exhibits little or no spontaneous activity
stupor
Decreased alertness with assoc. psychomotor retardation
Obtundation
hallucinations, disorientation, and delusions characterize what level of consciousness
Delirium
what is the MCC of primary brain tumors?
Gliomas
What is the the MCC of sencondary brain tumors
Metastases

Due to Colon , lung, breast CA; also from meningitis, encephalitis, abscesses due to dental, otogenic, sinus infections.
this is located on the inferior frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe of the cortex. It is involved in word formation and speech production
Broca's area
Where is Wernicke's area
on the left posterior section of the superior temporal gyrus, encircling the auditory cortex
name some SSRIs
Prozac (Fluotxetine)
Zoloft (sertraline)
Paxil (paroxetine)
Lu Vox (Fluvoxamine)
Celexa (Citalopram)
Lexapro (Escitalopram)
name some antipsychotics
Stelazine
Haldol
Thorazine
Trilafon
Seroquel
Zyprexa
Risperdol
what are the 3 principal motor pathways?
Corticospinal (pyramidal) tract
Basal Ganglia system
Cerebellar system
what test is used to test for dementia?
Folstein mini-mental exam
name some Anxiolytics (anti-seizure)
Halcion
Ativan
Valium
Buspar
Xanax
T/F Anticholinergics are used to treat parkinson's disease
True
What are phenothiazines used for?
they are anit-psychotic drugs

Side effects: Tardive Dyskinesia
Name the 3 types of tremors
Resting - (parkinson's)
Postural - (anxiety,hyperthyroidism, fatigue)
Intention - absent at rest, gets worse as target nears. causes: disorders of cerebellar pathways and MS
what is athetosis?
a twisting, writhing movement commonly in the face and extremities.
what is Dystonia?
Similar to athetosis but involve larger portions of the body. (torticollis)
would you be able to raise your eyebrow with a central lesion of CN VII?
yes, only the lower part of the face on the contralateral side would be affected (ie. CVA)
You have a pt with spasticity and hypertonia, where would you suspect a lesion to be?
Upper motor neuron of the corticospinal tract at any point from the cortex to the spinal cord.
lead-pipe rigidity and cogwheel rigidity are both assoc. with a lesion in this structure. Bradykinesia and tremors are other findings.
Basal ganglia
A pt presents with flaccidity of his left leg, he has a history of Guillain-Barre syndrome, where would you expect to find a lesion?
on the lower motor neuron at any point from the anterior horn cell to the peripheral nerve
your pt presents with diplopia and dysarthria, where do you suspect a lesion?
Brainstem due to cranial nerve deficits

Some causes may be brainstem stroke or acoustic neuroma
what is another name for subcortical grey matter?
Basal ganglia
your pt presents with ataxia, nystagmus, dysmetria, dysdiadochokinesis, where is the lesion?
Cerebellum
the term for an inability to perform rapid, alternating movements
Dysdiadochokinesia
A pt presents with weakness and atrophy of his distal left leg with decreased DTRs. He has a history of alcoholism and diabetes, what do you suspect?
Peripheral nerve polyneuropathy
what does one large, fixed, dilated pupil suggest?
herniation of the temporal lobe, compressing the occulomotor nerve and midbrain
Bilat. fixed and dilated pupils can be caused by?
Phenothiazines
MI (anoxia)
Atropinelike agents
TCAs
What can cause pinpoint pupils?
damage to sympathetic pathways
hemorrhage in the pons
heroin
other narcotics
morphine
what is dysarthria?
defective articulation
what are the components of the mental status exam?
Appearance & Behavior
Speech and language
Mood
Thoughts and perceptions
Cognitive functions
MCC of dementia?
Alzheimer's
what are the 4 regions of the brain?
Cerebrum
Diencephalon
Brainstem
Cerebellum
what is the function of the thalamus?
relays sensory information to the cerbral cortex
this white matter structure is where mylinated fibers converge from all parts of the cerebral cortex and descend into the brainstem
Internal Capsule
if you have an abnormal knee reflex, where might you find a lesion
the knee reflex corresponds to the lumbar 2,3,4 spinal segments
if you have a lesion in the Sacral 1 spinal segment, which reflex will be abnormal?
Ankle reflex
what part of the body will be affected if there is a lesion below the medulla?
motor impairment will be on the ipsilateral side of the body
this system helps to maintain muscle tone and to control body movements
Basal ganglia system
what is the corticobulbar tract?
A white matter pathway connecting the cerebral cortex to the brainstem;
tracts synapse in the brainstem with motor nuclei of the cranial nerves. The muscles of the face, head and neck are controlled by this system.
What are the two sensory pathways by which impulses reach the sensory cortex in the brain?
Spinothalamic tract
Posterior columns
Which tract conducts sensations of pain, temperature and crude touch to the thalamus?
Spinothalamic tract (anterolateral pathway)
Which tract conducts sensations of position, vibration, and fine touch to the medulla where they cross and then are sent to the thalamus?
Posterior columns (discriminative pathway)
which lobe is responsible for planning, problem solving, intellectual insight, judgment, and expression of emotion?
Frontal lobe
where does emotion originate?
in the amygdala of the limbic system
This lobe integrates and interprets somatic, visual, and auditory information that is critical for recognition of the familiar
Temporal lobe
this lobe integrates and processess sensory and spatial input; bodily awareness; filtration of background stimuli
Parietal lobe
what area of the brain is assoc. with behavior, emotions, and motivation?
The limbic system
Sexual arousal, aggression, and fear are functions of this part of the brain
Amygdala
what is the MOA of MAOIs?
block the degradation of norepi and serotonin
what's the MOA of TCAs?
Block the reuptake of norepi and serotonin
What does the basal ganglia consist of and where is it found?
found on either side of the internal capsule, it consists of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and the globus pallidus. (putamen + globus pallidus = lentiform nucleus)