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71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what makes up the brainstem?
midbrain, pons, medulla
what are the four main divisions of the "brain"
cerebrum, diencephalon, brainstem, cerebellum
what are the functions of the cerebellum?
analyzes proprioception, delicate manuevers, compares what is actually happening with what is intended to happen
aggregations of neuronal cell bodies, forms the cerebral cortex?
gray matter
neuronal axons coated with myelin are made up of?
white matter
which structure that lies deep within the brain in gray matter processes sensory impulses and relays them to the cerebral cortex?
thalamus
which structure deep within the brain maintains homeostasis and regulates temperature, heart rate and blood pressure?
the hypothalamus
which structure deep within the brain affects the endocrine system, governs emotional behaviors, and secretes hormones that act directly on the pituitary gland?
the hypothalamus
what two main structures make up the basal ganglia?
caudate nucleus, lenticular nucleus
this structure is made up of the midbrain, the pons and the medulla and connects the upper part of the brain with the spinal cord?
the brainstem
this system lies in the diencephalon and upper brainstem and plays an important role in the interaction between intact central hemispheres (consciousness)
the reticular activating system
which cranial nerve provides the special visceral sensory innervation of the taste buds of the oral pharynx and back of tongue?
CN IX- glossopharyngeal nerve
injury to this area leads to vertigo, nystagmus and some postural instability?
the vestibular division of cranial nerve VIII.
the caudal pons (the junction of the medulla oblongata and the pons) is the site of attachment for which cranial nerves?
CN VIII= vestibulocochlear
CN VII= facial
CN VI= abducens
which structure seperates the cerebellum from the cerebral hemispheres?
a fold of dura matter called the Tentorium Cerebelli
this structure that is encased with the bony vertebral column also mediates reflex activity of the deep tendon reflexes from the spinal nerves
the spinal cord
where are most lumbar punctures performed to avoid injury to the spinal cord?
L2-4
where do the cranial nerves arise from?
CN II-XII arise from the diencephalon and brainstem.
CN I-II are actually fiber tracts emerging from the brain
how many pairs of peripheral nerves are there?
31
8 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 sacral
1 coccygeal
which type of fibers do each anterior (ventral) root contain?
motor fibers
which type of fibers do each posterior (dorsal) root contain?
sensory fibers
what are some tests that verify cerebellum function?
romberg test, tandem gait, rapid/alternating mvmts, point to point mvmt, heal to shin slide
the inability to perform the point to point mvmt test (to follow mvmts with finger) is known as?
dysmetria or apraxia
what is the name of the fluid filled space that surrounds the basal ganglia?
arachnoid villi
which gland produces melatonin, and therefore induces sleep/dreamlike states, Renee Descartes refers to it as "the seat of the soul"
the pineal gland
what are the three large subcortical nuclei that make up the basal ganglia of the brain?
caudate nucleus, globus palidus (smaller more medial part of the lentiform nucleus), putamen
what is the function of the basal ganglia?
to participate in the control of movement along with the cerebellum, the corticospinal system and other descending motor systems
give an example -of a location-of a monosynaptic reflex?
in the dtr of the arms/legs. they illustrate the simplest unit of sensory/motor fxn.
what are the 3 kinds of motor pathways on the anterior horn cells?
the corticospinal tract, the basal ganglia system and the cerebellar system
these tracts mediate voluntary mvmnt and integrate skilled, complicated or delicate mvmnts by stimulating selected muscular actions and inhibiting others. origin: motor cortex of brain
corticospinal tract
this complex motor pathway system includes motor pathways between the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, brainstem and spinal cord. maintains muscle tone, control of body mvmnts, esp gross mvmt like walking
the basal ganglia system
this motor pathway receives both sensory and motor input, coordinates motor activity, maintains equilibrium and helps control posture
the cerebellar system
these "nerve cell bodies" lie in the motor strip of the cerebral cortex and in several brainstem nuclei; their axons synapse w/ motor nuclei in the brainstem (CN) and in the spinal cord (PN)
Upper Motor Neurons
these nerve cell bodies have anterior horn cells in the spinal cord, their axons transmit impulses through the anterior roots and spinal nervels into peripheral nerves and terminate at the NM junction?
Lower Motor Neurons
if a P had a lesion along the motor pathway, what would you expect to see?
problem with movement or reflex activity
hyperreflexia upon PE would be indicative of a lesion where??
upper motor neuron lesion. (representative of a central nervous sys.lesion)
what are some characteristics of an upper motor neuron lesion?
paralysis, spasticity, hyperreflexic deep tendon reflexes, + Babinski reflex, loss of abdominal reflex, little muscle atrophy.
what are some characteristics of a lower motor neuron lesion?
flaccid weakness with muscle wasting, fasciculations, loss of DTR's, normal abdominal and plantar reflexes
a syndrome that causes muscle pain and aching (hips, thighs, back) facial muscle weakness, paresthesias and urinary retention. It can also cause tachy, brady, labile BP, resp insuff...
guillain-Barre syndrome
resting tremor (usually of the hands) bradykinesia, postural changes, cogwheel rigidity are symptoms that are usually indicative of what disease?
parkinson's
a disease of the neuromuscular junction resulting in fluctuating weakness and fatiguability of voluntary muscles. Thought to be caused by a reduction in the # of AcH receptors
Myasthenia gravis
the gradual onset of memory impairment is the major symptom of what disease?
alzheimer's
a disorder of speech in which there is involuntary repetition of the same word
echolalia
a syndrome that is manifested by muscle weakness, paresthesias, decreased DTR's, and autonomic disturbances most commonly in hands/feet (ex:coldness and sweating)
peripheral neuropathy
what are some causes of peripheral neuropathy?
many; ranging from metabolic conditions to malignant neoplasm, RA, drug and alcohol use, DM, b12 deficiency
when the corticospinal tract is damaged or destroyed, function is lost above or below the level of injury?
below the injury.
what affect does cerebellar damage have on the body?
impairs coordination, gait, equilibrium and decreases muscle tone
what affect does damage to the basal ganglia system have on the body?
produces changes in muscle tone (increase) disturbance in posture and gait, bradykinesia
these pathways give rise to conscious sensation, calibrate body position in space and help regualte internal autonomic functions (BP,HR)
sensory pathways
what is the most numerous type of cell in the brain?
glial cells
what type of cells exist at the blood brain barrier?
astrocytes. they form tight junctions, attach themselves to neurons, absorb ionic particles (Ca, glutamate, glycine) and redistribute to neurons.
a band of skin innervated by the sensory root of a single spinal nerve is a ?
dermatone
loss of position and vibration sense with preservation of other sensations points to disease of which columns?
posterior columns
loss of sensations from the waist down, together with paralysis and hyperactive reflexes in the legs indicates?
transection of the spinal cord.
why are crude touch and light touch often preserved in a transection of the spinal cord injury?
because impulses originating on one side of the body travel up both sides of the cord
what does C3 innervate?
the front of neck
what does t4 innervate?
nipples!
what does T10 innervate?
umbilicus
what does C6 innervate?
thumb
what does L1 innervate?
inguinal area
what does C8 innervate?
ring and little fingers
what does L4 innervate?
knee
what does L5 innervate?
anterior ankle and foot
what does C3 innervate?
back of neck
what does L5 innerate
foot
what are the two most common symptoms in neurologic disorders?
headache, dizziness
the term for difficulty forming words is?
dysarthria
the term for difficulty with gait or balance?
ataxia
tonic-clonic motor activity, bladder or bowel incontinence and postictal state suggest?
a generalized seizure
a paroxysmal disorder caused by sudden excessive electrical discharge in the cerebral cortex or its underlying structure defines?
seizure
what are some examples of transient symptoms of TIA's?
visual loss (usually transient monocular blindness), aphasia, dysarthria, changes in facial mvmnt or sensation