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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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Organs/Structures of Digestive System
Mouth
Salivary Glands
Teeth
Esophagus
Stomach
Small Intestine
Large Intestine
Mouth
Food broken down
Lubricated
Chemical Digestion begins with Salivary Amylase
Salivary Glands
moistens, dissolves, binds foods into a bolus
Teeth
breaks food down mechanically
Esophagus
muscular tube, continuation of the pharynx which ends at the radial sphincter at the top of the stomach, transports food to stomach
Mechanical forces that aid in movement of material through digestive tract
Mouth - Mastication
Esophagus - Swallowing & Peristalsis
Stomach - Peristalsis, Additional contractions
Small Intestine - Peristalsis, Rhythmic Segmentation
Large Intestine - Peristalsis, Mass Movement
Stomach volume increases...
Rugae, the body of the stomach
Folds of the Stomach
Stomach can hold a little over a gallon of food (4.5 quarts)
Primary site of absorption in the GI tract
Small intesting
Accessory Organs to Digestive System
Pancreas:
Endocrine Gland
Exocrine Gland
Liver
Gall bladder
Pancreas
Endocrine Gland:
secretes insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin
Exocrine Gland:
Digestive enzymes, amylase for starch and trypsin for protein, lipase for fat
Chromosomal Sex
Presence or absence of Y chromosome
Gonadal Sex
Both gonads develop from same tissue, the indifferent gonad.
If Sry is present, testes develop, if absent, ovaries develop
Endocrine Sex
presence or absence of testes
Male has Testosterone and Mullerian Inhibiting Hormone (MIH)
Phenotypic Sex
Male - influenced by DHT (hormone from testosterone)
Brain Sex
Males - Estradiol (from Testosterone) masculinizes the brain.
Females - Estradiol binds to alpha-fetoprotein, the brain is then feminized
Sex mix up
Genetic/Chromosomal sex misalignment - body tries to form testes instead of ovaries
Adrenal Gland malfunction - Fetus can develop congenital adrenal hyperplasia (enlarged clitoris, fusion of labiosacrotal swellings trying to form a scrotum)
Phenotypic/Endocrine - Male fetuses lack T and DTH receptors causing testicular feminization
Brain sex - T in males is converted to Estradiol, brain remains feminized, vice versa
Placental Hormone
hCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin))
Secreted by placenta causes CL to continue secreting progesterone and estrogen
1st Trimester
Tired, run down
Morning sickness
Increased appetite
Changes of areola
Slight weight gain
Increased waistline
Second Trimester
Increased appetite
Weight gain
Increased waistline
Increased breastsize
Third Trimester
Appetite, Weight, Waistline, Breast size
Progressive discomfort
Constipation
Urination
Eye/midline pigmentation
Hair loss/gain
Diabetes potential
Hormonal Changes in Pregnancy
hCG, Estrogen, Progesterone, Placental Lactogen, Relaxin, Corticotropin-relaxing hormone

Resulting in:
Increased output by heart and lungs, decreased GI motility
Increased blood flow to reproductive tract
Birthing process initiation/origin
Fetal pituitary gland maturation releases ACTH stimulating fetal adrenal glands to produce steroid hormones, placenta increases production of E and decreases P. E increases oxitocin receptors and stimulates prostaglandin production which stimulates rhythmic uteran contractions, causes positive feedback producing more oxitocin
Stages of Parturition
First Stage - dilation
Second Stage - delivery
Third Stage - placental expulsion
Suckling Reflex
Breasts will swell, milk producing lobules within mammary glands, ducts to carry milk to nipples, P, E, and placental lactogen
Milk Letdown
Suckling stimulates nerve endings
Signal carried to hypothalamus
Hypo produces oxitocin, released by PP
Oxytocin causes mammary lobules to contract
Milk is emitted
Puberty
Developmental PROCESS by which one becomes capable to reproducing
Factors impacting pubertal process
Nutrition
Body Fat
Genetics
Purposes of menstrual cycle
provide repeated opportunities for reproduction
Discharge of sloughed-off endometrial tissue and associated fluid of no pregnancy occurs
Ovulation
14 of a 28 day cycle
Initiation of menstruation
CL regression induced by prostraglandin F2 alpha, results in decline of P and E levels
Infertility
failure to conceive after one year of regular unprotected sexual intercourse
Causes of Infertility in Males
Azoospermia/Oligospermia
Endocrine disorders
Testicular damage
Antibodies to own sperm
Accessory gland malfunction
Environmental causes including stress
Disease
Causes of Infertility in Females
Failure to ovulate
Tubal blockage
Absence of implantation
Reduced sperm transport
Antibodies to sperm
Pregnancy wastage (miscarry)
Disease
Environmental conditions including stress
Responsibility of Infertility
80% explained
Female 40% of time
Male 30% of time
Couple 30% of time
20% unexplained
ART
Assisted Reproduction Techniques
Options:
Timed intercourse
Artificial insemination
In vitro fertilization
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection
Planet organization
atoms/molecule - cells - tissues - organ - organ system - organism - population - community - ecosystem - biosphere
Chemical Bonding
Ionic bonds - attractive forces between oppositely charged ions
Covalent bonds - electron sharing
Hydrogen bonds -
Lipids
Triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids
energy storage, insulation, cell membrane, hormones
Fats
Carbohydrate
sugars, starches, etc...
Energy nutrient, component of structural elements, hormones
Proteins
Enzymes, antigens, hormones
Structural elements, defense, hormones, catalysts
Amino Acids
Nucleic Acids
DNA, RNA, ATP
Genetic info, energy
Cell's organelles
Nucleus - genetic info/control center
RER - synthesis/package of proteins
Ribosome - form proteins from aas
SER - synthesize lipids
Golgi apparatus - process, package, and distribute molecules from ER
Lysosomes
Mitochondria - ATP, energy
Vesicles and vacuoles - store and transport substances
Cytoskeleton - backbone/frame
Cell membrane -
Capacitation
changes that a sperm must undergo to become capable of fertilization. Involves addition and removal of surface molecules and occurs in the female tract
Acromosome Reaction
fusion of plasma membrane with acrosomal membrane (head of sperm) releasing acrosome conents (enzymes). Equatorial segment of sperm membrane is then present
Cortical Reaction
slow chemical reaction preventing plyspermy. Zona block
Syngamy
Fusion of male and female pronuclei
Hostile condition of female tract
retrograde flow
Acidic
Phagocytosis
Cervical mucus
lost in endometrium
Cell division
Somatic cells - mitosis
Germ cells - meiosis
Cancer
disease of abnormal cell division and differentiation
genetically unstable
high, out of control division
high mobility
seem more undifferentiated
escape apoptotic mechanisms
Genetic formation of cancer cells
mutations in DNA
Tissue types in the body
Epithelial
Connective
Muscle
Nervous
Epithelial Tissue
simple/stratified squamous
simple/stratified cuboidal
simple/psuedostratified columnar
Connective tissue
blood
bone
cartilage
adipose tissue
loose and dense fibrous tissue
Muscle
skeletal
smooth
cardiac
Nervous
neuron
neuroglia (glial cells)
Cleavage
Cell division accompanied by reduction in cell size
Morula
8-16 cell embryo
Blastocyst
Just before hatching
hatching
Embryo escapes out of ZP
Placenta
Yolk sac - source of blood and germ cells
Amnion - exercise and cushion
Chorion - outermost sac of placenta, exchange between f and m circulation
Cell Types in Bone
osteon - funtional unit
osteoblasts - build bone
osteocysts - mature bone cells
osteoclasts - breakdown bone matrix
Neuromuscular Junction
region where motor neuron comes in contact wtih muscle cells, nt released. Structures present: axon terminal, nerve impulse, synaptic vesicle, synaptic end and bulb, sarcolemma, synaptic cleft, motor and end plate
Contraction sequence of events (muscular)
Calcium ions diffuse into sarcoplasm bind to troponin
Troponin shape changes
Myosin binding sites on actin are exposed
Byosin heads bind to actin and pull actin filament
ADP and inorganic phosphate released from myosin
New ATP made undoing everything
Sarcomere bands during muscle contraction
A band - thick filaments
I band - thin actin filaments

myosin filaments form cross bridges with I band and pulls I band to center of sarcomere when calcium present
Leukocytes
Eosinophils, Basophils, Neutrophil, Lymphocyte, Monocyte
Cytes are agranulocytes
phils are granulocytes
Monocytes
wandering professional phagocytes
enter tissues and become macrophages
Basophils
Inflammatory response
Secrete/store histamine and heparin
Eosinophils
increase in response to allergies and parasitic infections, chemical secretions that counter inflammatory response and kill parasites
Neutrophils
Phagocyte specialists, first cells to respond to infection, short life span, clean up debris, example: pus
Tidal Volume
volume of air that enters/leaves during single respiratory cycle
Inspiratory Reserve Volume
Volume during forced inhalation minus tidal volume
Expiratory Reserve Volume
volume during forced expiration minus tidal volume
Residual Volume
remaining in lungs after most forced expiration
Total Lung Capacity
inspiratory plus resting tidal plus expiratory reserve volume plus residual
Vital capacity
total lung capacity minus residual
PNS
Sensory/motor
somatic, autonomic
Autonomic subdivisions
sympathetic/parasympathetic