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210 Cards in this Set

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Electrons within the same orbital are represented as having parallel spins. This goes against what?
Pauli exclusion principle
What are the four quantum numbers and what do they refer to?
n principal quantum #
l azimuthal quantum #
angular momentum quantum #
m_l magnetic quantum #
m_s spin quantum #
No two electrons in a given atom can posess the same quantum numbers is stated by:
Pauli exclusion principle
principal quantum number (n) is defined by
energy level
(0, 1, 2, 3...n)
azimuthal quantum number (l) is defined by
shape of orbitals. subshells
(0, 1, 2, 3, up to n-1)
(s, p, d, f)
The maximum number of electrons in energy level n is
2n^2
The maximum number of electrons that can exist within a subshell is given by
4l+2
For any given principal quantum number (n), the value of the azimuthal quantum number (l) ranges from
0 to n-1
The greater value of ___, the greater energy of the subshell.
l
The ____ value of l, the greater energy of the subshell.
greater
The greater value of l, the greater ________.
energy of the subshell
The greater value of l, the ______ energy of the subshell
greater
magnetic quantum number (m_l) is defined by
orientation of the orbital in space
all integers (-l to l) including 0
The possible values of m_l are
all integers (-l to l) including 0
spin quantum number (m_s) is defined by
the direction of spin
(-1/2, +1/2)
How many electrons can be in the same orbital?
2
The Pauli exclusion principle states that whenever two electrons are in the same orbital, they must have ____ spins
opposite
Subshells are ranked by increasing energy by finding
n+l
The lower the value of ___, the lower the energy of the subshell.
n+1
The ____ the value of n+l, the lower the energy of the subshell.
lower
The lower the value of n+l, the ____ of the subshell.
lower the energy
Hund's rule states that
in subshells that contain more than one orbital, the orbitals are filled so that there are a maximum number of half-filled orbitals with parallel spins
In Bohr's model of the hydrogen atom the energy of an electron is directly dependent on
principal quantum number (n)
What describes the excitation exhibited when an electron jumps from its ground state to a higher energy level?
atomic absorption spectrum
The Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that
it is impossible to determine the momentum and the position of an electron simultaneously
This says it is impossible to determine the momentum and the position of an electron simultaneously
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
What is planck's constant
6.62E-34J*s
What is the speed of light
3E8 m/s
What is the final orbital of Ca
4s^2
How many electrons in Ca
20
What is the final orbial and # of electrons if an atom has 20 electrons
4s^2
If an atom's final orbital is 4s^2, how many total electrons does it have
20
An energy (x) corresponds to the energy of an electron in which principal energy level?

What formula?
E = -R_H/n^2

x = E
solve for n
R_H is given
In going from 1s2-2s2-2p6-3s2-3p6-4s1 to
1s2-2s2-2p6-3s2-3p5-4s2 an electron would
absorb energy
In going from 1s2-2s2-2p6-3s2-3p5-4s2 to
1s2-2s2-2p6-3s2-3p6-4s1 an electron would
emit energy
How do you find the amount of energy it takes to move an electron from one energy level to another?
E = -R_H ((1/n_i)^2 - (1/n_f)^2)

R_H = 2.18E-18J/electron
How to determine the energy of a photon given the photon frequency?
E=hv

h=planck's constant 6.62E-34J*s
How to determine the wavelength given a photon that carries an x amount of energy?
E = hc/wavelength

h=planck's constant 6.62E-34J*s
On the periodic table electronegativity increases this direction
up and to the right
On the periodic table ionization energy increases this direction
up and to the right
On the periodic table atomic radius increases this direction
down and to the left
dipole-dipole interactions and dispersion forces are known as
van der Waals forces
van der Waals forces are
dipole-dipole interactions and dispersion forces
dipole-dipole interactions are formed by
polar molecules arranging so that positive sides of molecules get close to negative sides of other molecules
polar molecules arranging so that positive sides of molecules get close to negative sides of other molecules is called
dipole-dipole interactions
dipole-dipole interactions are negligible in this state phase
gaseous
_____ species tend to have higher boiling points than _____ species of comparable molecular weight
Polar
nonpolar
Polar species tend to have ____ boiling points than nonpolar species of comparable molecular weight
higher
Substances with hydrogen bonding tend to have ______ boiling points compared with compounds of similar molecular formula without H bonding
unusually high
Substances with ____ tend to have unusually high boiling points compared with compounds of similar molecular formula without _____.
hydrogen bonding
the short lived formation of dipoles caused by the rapid polarization and counterpolarization of the bonding electron cloud
dispersion forces
london forces
These kind of molecules possess greater dispersion forces
large
Large molecules possess more of this intermolecular force
london dispersion forces
How many moles in (x)grams of XY_2
mol = weight of sample (g)
_________________________
total molar weight (g/mol)
For the general reaction
aA + bB --> cC + dD

rate= ?
rate = k[A]^x[B]^y
The concentration of radioactive substance A at time t is found by
[A_t] = [A_o]e^-(kt)

***
ln(A_t) = ln(A_o)-k*e*t
How is the first order halflife of a reaction found
t_(1/2) = ln (2/k) = .693k
___ enthalpy change indicates an endothermic reaction
negative
___ enthalpy change indicates an exothermic reaction
positive
Negative enthalpy change indicates an _____ reaction
endothermic
Positive enthalpy change indicates an _____ reaction
exothermic
If K_eq is ____ compared to 1 an equilibrium mixture of reactants and products will contain very little of the reactants compared to the products
very large
If K_eq is very large compared to 1 an equilibrium mixture of reactants and products will contain
very little of the reactants compared to the products
If K_eq is ____ compared to 1 an equilibrium mixture of reactants and products will contain very little of the products compared to the reactants
very small
If K_eq is very large compared to 1 an equilibrium mixture of reactants and products will contain
very little of the products compared to the reactants
If K_eq is ____ compared to 1 an equilibrium mixture of reactants and products will contain approximately equal amount of reactants and products
close to 1
If K_eq is close to 1 compared to 1 an equilibrium mixture of reactants and products will contain
approximately equal amount of reactants and products
In an exothermic reaction adding heat will cause the reaction to
shift to the left
In an endothermic reaction adding heat will cause the reaction to
continue forward faster
An adiabatic process occurs when
no heat exchange occurs in a system
An isothermal process occurs when
temperature of the system remains constant
Isobaric process occurs when
pressure of the system remains constant
An isolated system occurs when
it cannot exchange energy or matter with its surroundings
A closed system occurs when
it can exchange energy but not matter with its surroundings
An open system occurs when
it can exchange energy and matter with its surroundings
To find the heat moved in a given process
q = m*c*dT

m=mass
c=specific heat
dT=change in temp
Given:
Several reactions and their changes in enthalpy. Calculate change in enthalpy for another reaction based on this.
Comine given reactions, multiply/factor to cancel needed compounds on either side after adding is complete so that the final reaction is the same as the one that must be calculated for. Add the reactions' dH's to find the dH for the answer.
Change in entropy is given by
dS=Sfinal-Sinitial
dS=q_rev/T
Change in Gibbs free energy is found by
dG = dH - TdS
If dG is negative the reaction is _______
spontaneous
If dG is positive the reaction is _______
not spontaneous
If dG is zero the reaction is ______
in a state of equilibrium
If dH = TdS the reaction is ____
in a state of equilibrium
If dH > TdS the reaction is ____
not spontaneous
If dH < TdS the reaction is ____
spontaneous
If dG is ____ the reaction is spontaneous
negative
If dG is ____ the reaction is not spontaneous
positive
If dG is _____ the reaction is in equilibrium
zero
The heat of formation of any element in its elemental state is
0
P1V1=?
P2V2
V1/T1=?
V2/T2
n1/V1=?
n2/V2
PV=?
nRT
P1V1
____ = ?
T1
P2V2
____
T2
density = ?
m/v

P(MM)
_____
RT
KE=(1/2)mv^2=
(3/2)kT
KE=
(1/2)mv^2
(3/2)kT
r1/r2 = ?
sqrt(MM2/MM1)
Natural processes want to decrease ____ and increase ____
enthalpy
entropy
Natural processes want to ____ enthalpy and _____ entropy
decrease
increase
Any process that increases entropy and decreases enthalpy will be
spontaneous at any temperature
Any process that does this will be spontaneous at any temperature
increase entropy
decrease enthalpy
The higher the molecular mass, the ___ the gas will diffuse
slower
The ____ the molecular mass, the slower the gas will diffuse.
higher
To find bond order from a MO diagram:
subtract antibonding(*) electrons from bonding electrons and divide by two
What type of amine is found as an organic salt?
quaternary

NH4
What are the colligative properties?
lowering vapor pressure
boiling point elevation
freezing point depression
osmotic pressure
What functional group cannot be formed from carboxylic acids?
ethers
In proton NMR, a peak with a shift between 6.0 and 9.5PPM denotes which functional group
aromatic
In proton NMR, a peak with a shift between 9.5 and 10.5PPM denotes which functional group
aldehyde
In proton NMR, a peak with a shift between 2.1 and 2.6PPM denotes which functional group
ketone
In proton NMR, a peak with a shift between 3.3 and 3.9PPM denotes which functional group
ether
The smaller the K_sp the lower the ___
solubility
The smaller the _____ the lower the solubility
K_sp
The ____ the K_sp the lower the solubility
smaller
Whatever is being oxidized is the ____
reducing agent
Whatever is being reduced is the ____
oxidizing agent
A gain in charge is ____
oxidation
A loss in charge is ____
reduction
A gain in electrons is ____
reduction
A loss in electrons is ____
oxidation
this hybridization is linear
sp
this hybridization is trigonal planar
sp2
this hybridization is tetrahedral
sp3
this hybridization is trigonal bipyrimidal
sp3d
this hybridization is tetrahedral
sp3d2
the shape of sp3d2 is
octahedral
the shape of sp3d is
trigonal bipyramidal
the shape of sp3 is
tetrahedral
the shape of sp2 is
trigonal planar
the shape of sp is
linear
How would you determine which part of an organic compound caused a peak on a mass spectrograph at X amu
Find which molecular mass adds up to the given amu
Which thermodynamics property tends to increase in a spontaneous process
entropy
What is the most advanced theory of molecular bonding
MO theory
A broad peak at 3200-3550cm^-1 in an IR spectrograph is
-OH group
A peak at 1630-1780cm^-1 in an IR spectrograph is
carbonyl
A peak at 2220-2260cm^-1 in an IR spectrograph is
nitrile
A peak at 2853-2962cm^-1 in an IR spectrograph is
C-H stretch
When asked to find the coordination number of the coordination complex, do this
count the number of coordinate covalent bonds on the central atom
K_sp = ?
[A]^x * [B]^y ...
LeChatelier's principle states that
when a stress (change in concentration, temperature, volume, or total pressure) is applied to a system, the equilibrium will shift to relieve that stress
Which is the anode and which is the cathode. What do the double lines represent

Cu|Cu2+ || Ag+|Ag
Cu side is anode
Ag side is cathode

the salt bridge
Cu|Cu2+ || Ag+|Ag

Where does oxidation occur
at the anode on the left
Cu|Cu2+ || Ag+|Ag

Where does reduction occur
at the cathode on the right
Meta directors do this
help stabilize a positive charge on the meta position
What is the order of oxidation for functional groups from lowest to highest
alkyne
alkene
alkane
alcohol
ketone/aldehyde
COOH
CO2
The dehydration of -COOH with an -OH yields what functional group
ester
What is the order of stability for a Carbon free radical from lowest to highest
methyl
primary
secondary
tertiary
Which of the following functional groups will have the greatest partial positive charge in carbon on the beta position to the functional group? Why?

amine
aldehyde
alcohol
alkene
aldehyde

O has a large electronegativity so it has an inducive effect on adjacent carbons
What results in a free radical
homolytic cleavage
homolytic cleavage results in
a free radical
The solution of a salt with a cation of a strong base and an anion of a weak acid will form what type of solution
basic
The solution of a salt with a cation of a weak base and an anion of a strong acid will form what type of solution
acidic
The solution of a salt with a cation of a ___ base and an anion of a ___ acid will form a basic solution
strong, weak
The solution of a salt with a cation of a ___ base and an anion of a ___ acid will form an acidic solution
weak, strong
As temperature increases reaction rates increase was an idea from
Arrhennius
If a gas is only on the product side of the equation it means
entropy has increased
If a gas is only on the reactant side of the equation it means
entropy has decreased
A solute in a liquid will cause vapor pressure ____
depression
To find heat capacity do this
mass x specific heat
to find rate of effusion
rate 1
______ = sqrt(MW2/MW1)
rate 2
wavelength x frequency =
c (speed of light)
On the periodic table atomic radii tend to increase
down and to the left
To determine which solutes in water will raise the boiling temperature the most:
determine which solute produces the most moles when dissolved
Given the initial concentration of a reactant in a first-order reaction, a rate constant, find the molarity after t seconds
ln([A0]/A]) = kt
When _______, equilibrium shifts in the direction to produce a smaller gas volume.
pressure increases
When _______, equilibrium shifts in the direction to produce a larger gas volume.
pressure decreases
This can react with either an acid or a base and is formed by an amphoteric element, which is an element that can react as a metal or a nonmetal
An amphoteric oxide
The larger the value of the equilibrium constant, K_A,
the stronger the acid/base
The smaller the value of the equilibrium constant, K_A,
the weaker the acid/base
What are the solubility rules
-All salts formed with alkali metals
-All ammonium salts(NH4+) and nitrate salts (NO3-)
-Many chlorides bromides and iodides
-Many sulfates (SO4 2-)
When _______, equilibrium shifts in the direction to produce a smaller gas volume.
pressure increases
When _______, equilibrium shifts in the direction to produce a larger gas volume.
pressure decreases
This can react with either an acid or a base and is formed by an amphoteric element, which is an element that can react as a metal or a nonmetal
An amphoteric oxide
The larger the value of the equilibrium constant, K_A,
the stronger the acid/base
The smaller the value of the equilibrium constant, K_A,
the weaker the acid/base
What are the solubility rules
-All salts formed with alkali metals
-All ammonium salts(NH4+) and nitrate salts (NO3-)
-Many chlorides bromides and iodides
-Many sulfates (SO4 2-)
These are the three steps to forming a polymer
initiation - formation of free radical
propagation - chain lengthening step
termination - when something bonds to the free radical and discontinues the chain growth
What kind of reactant is most likely to react with an aromatic compound
eletrophile
What type of alcohol will most rapidly undergo a dehydration reaction? Why
tertiary
it will have the most stable carbocation intermediate, tertiary
To find functional groups this spectroscopy is best
IR
To find molecular fragments this spectroscopy is best
MS
To find bonding structure this spectroscopy is best
NMR
1 mole of electrons is symbolized as
1 faraday
This is the only kind of nuclear decay that can increase atomic number
beta decay
When an aldehyde is oxidized it becomes
carboxylic acid
How is singlet/doublet/triplet/etc determined?
count the number of H on the desired C and any adjacent C
What represents the energy gained by giving an electron to an element
electron affinity
Ag+ + I- <--> AgI

what can be added to remove more silver from the solution
KI
In oxyacids, the _____, the stronger the acid
more oxygen present
In oxyacids, the more oxygen present the ______
stronger the acid
In polyprotic acids, the more hydrogen bonds of oxygen lost hydronium ions, the ____
stronger the acid
In polyprotic acids, ____, the stronger the acid
the more hydrogen bonds of oxygen lost hydronium ions
In equilibrium equations, ____ is not included because its will remain almost constant
H2O
H2O is not included in _______ because its concentration will remain almost constant
equilibrium equations
H2O is not included in equilibrium equations because
its concentration will remain almost constant
This is the formation of a solid from a gas
deposition
Causing a reaction to occur by increasing the temperature increases the influence of this
entropy

dG = dH - TdS
What kind of isomer will rotate plane polarized light
enantiomer
This has chiral carbons that cancel the rotation of light out on each other
diastereomer
What type of amine is most alkaline in water
tertiary
A Claisen rearrangement yields what type of compound
phenol derivative
o-substituted phenol
Ether oxidizes to this
CO2
Alpha decay does this
reduces atomic number by 2
Beta decay does this
increases the atomic number
When naming a benzene ring, constituents on adjacent carbons go in this order (carbon 1, 2, 3)
ortho, meta, para
A Claisen condensation will produce what
beta keto ester
This is the reaction of esters in the presence of sodium ethoxide
Claisen condensation
These are created by a dehydration reaction with a carboxylic acid and an alcohol
esters
These are created by a dehydration reaction with a carboxylic acid and an amine
amides