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247 Cards in this Set

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Celcius to kelvin
C + 273
proton
Atomic #
mass #
protons + neutrons
electrons
= to proton #
cation
positive ion
anion
negative ion
cathode
negative electrode
anode
positive electrode
isotope
same element different mass #
hydroxide
oh-1
cyanide
cn-
sulfate
so4-2
phosphate
po4-3
nitrate
no3-1
perchlorate
clo4-
chlorite
clo2-
carbonate
co3-2
bicarbonate
hco3-
peroxide
o2-2
permanganate
kmno4-
ammonium
nh4+
chlorate
clo3-
hypochlorite
clo-
-ite
1 less oxygen
-hypo
2 less oxygen
-per
1 more oxygen
-ous
less cations
-ic
more cations
electronic configuration
n- shell electron is in (1s, 2s)
l- subshell electron is in (s, p)
m1- orbital (1, 3, 5)
ms- spin (+ or -)
max electrons in s shell
2
max electrons in p shell
6
max electrons in d shell
10
max electrons in f shell
14
valence electrons
electrons in the outer most shell
diamagnetic
an element with 2 electrons in all of its occupied orbitals
paramagnetic
an element that has atleast one orbital with only one electron in it
row
period
column
family
max # of electrons per row
2n^2
Halogens (Lightest to Heaviest)
flourine, chlorine, bromine, iodine
noble gases (Lightest to Heaviest)
He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, R
ideal gas law
pv=nrt
p-atm
v-liters
n-mol
r-.0821
t-k
P&V
directly proportional
P or V and T
inversely proportional
torr/760=
atm
Avogadros Law
v/n=v/n
Daltons Law
partial pressure
P=p1+p2+p3
STP
22.4 L, 273K, 1 atm, 1 mole
Gas properties
individual molecules widely dispersed
avg KE is direcly proportional to the absolute temperature
It is elastic and therefore no momentum is lost
Pressure of a gas is due to collisions
Gas molecules do not attract eachother
intermolecular
between molecules
intramolecular
within a molecule
EN
capacity of the atoms of an element to attact bonded electrons
non metals have greater En than metals
Fl has greatest EN Cesium the least
increases from left to right bottom to up
non-polar covalent
less than .5
polar covalent
.5-1.9
ionic bond
greater than 1.9
dipole moment
molecule is polar
symmetric
non polar
non symmetric
polar
dipole moment of zero
non polar
london forces
neutral nonpolar molecules attract eachother. weakest intermolecular attraction
hydrogen bonding
very stron dipole dipole.
H is bonded to F, O or N
Diatomics
AX polar
X2 non polar
Bent
2 bonds and an lp
linear
2 bonds
trigonal planar
3 bonds
pyramidal
3 bonds and an lp
tetrahedral
4 bonds
octahedral
6 bonds
ionic compounds
metal/non metal
polyatomic
strongest intermolecular force
strength of intermolecular force
ion-ion>H-Bonding>Dipole-Dipole>London Forces
The stronger the intermolecular attraction, the ______
higher the MP and BP will be
For polar molecules, the smaller the molecule
the stronger the attraction
For non-polar molecules, the larger the molecule
the stronger the attraction
To determine bond polarity, mp and bp use:
type of bond or weight. the higher the weight the greater the bp, the stronger the bond the greater the bp
empirical formula
simplest whole number ratio
molecular formula
actual # of atoms
percent composition
n*gE*(100/gF)=%E
percent composition to empirical formula
(%/100)/gE=amount of moles
if it is not a whole # divide by smallest # of moles
denisty
m/v
specific gravity
(d of x)/(d of water)
homogenous
completely uniform
solute
the one being dissolved
solvent
the one doing the dissolving
concentration
quantity of solute/ quantity of solvern or solution as a whole
Molarity (M)
moles of solute/ L of solution
# of moles
M*L
% by mass
(mass of solute*100)/mass of solution
% by mass/volume
(mass of solute*100)/volume of solution in mL
Molality (m)
moles of solute/ mass of solvent in kg
Mole fraction =1
moles of i/ total moles
Raolt's Law
mole fraction/ vapor pressure
BP elevation
kb*m
kb (constant)
m (molality of solute)
FP Depression
kf*m
kf (constant)
m (molality of solute)
osmosis
flow of solvent to equalize concentrations
dialysis
the flow of solute through a membrane
osmotic pressure
pressure exerted to stop flow of osmosis
the greatest colligative effect would be
the lowest vp, highest bp, lowest fp, or largest osmotic pressure
strong electrolyte solutes
water soluble strong acids (HCl, HNO3, H2SO4)
water soluble strong bases (NaOH, KOH)
water soluble salts (NaCL, KNO3, K2SO4)
weak electrolyte solutes
water soluble weak acid (CH3COOH)
water soluble weak base (NH3)
non-electrolyte solutes
water soluble sugars (glucose, sucrose)
water soluble alcohols (CH3OH, C2H5OH)
Dilution
Mi * Vi=Mf * Vf
limiting reactant
calculate the qty of product separately for each reactant. Then choose the least amount of product calculated as the correct choice.
Acid properties
taste sour
turns litmus red
yield pH less than 7
completely ionize
base properties
taste bitter and have a slippery feel
turn litmus blue
yield pH greater than 7
Arrhenius definition
acid generates H+
base yields OH-
Bronsted-Lowry Definition
acid is a (H+) proton donor
base is a proton acceptor
Lewis Definition
acid is an electron pair acceptor
base is an electron pair donor
strong acids react ____
completely
weak acids react ______
incompletely
a strong electrolyte is _______ ionized
completely
a weak electrolyte is ________
ionized
partially
strong acids
hcl, hno3, h2so4,
weak acid
ch3cooh, hf, h2co3, h3po4
strong base
IA and IIA hydroxides
weak base
ammonia
pH=
-log[H]
pOH
-log[OH]
calculating pH or pOh with out calculator
take molarity and count the number of times u need to move the decimal to make it 1.
calculating molarity from ph or pOH without calculator
1x10-(ph or pOH)
kw
[h3o][oh]= 1 x 10 -14
pH + pOH=
14
buffer
weak acid and weak base
acid/base stoichiometric
Nb * Mb *Vb = Na * Mb * Vb
n= # of h donated/accepted
oxidation # of IA
(Li, Na, K,Rb, Cs)
+1
oxidation # of F
-1
oxidation # of IIA
+2
Group II A elements
(Be, Mg, Ca,Sr, Ba)
Group IA elements
(Li, Na, K,Rb, Cs)
oxidation # of Al
+3
oxidation # of H
+1 with non metal
-1 with metal
oxidation # of O
-2
oxidation # of cl, br, I
-1
oxidation # for an unknown element
ex. cr2o7-2
find On for CR
2(x)+7(-2)=-2
x=+6
reduction reaction
decrease cation
OXIDATION REACTION
increase cation
reducing agent
the one that is being increased
oxidizing agent
the one that is being decreased
redox reaction
create half reaction
balance oxidation by adding e-
specific heat
q=m*sh*delta t
q= heat
heat of fusion
m*q
heat of vaporation
m*q
entropy
disorder
spontaneous reaction
incr in disorder
1st law of thermodynamics
conservation- mass n energy is conserved
2nd law of thermodynamics
disorder- spontaneous incr disorder
3rd law of thermodynamics
pure solid at absolute 0 has 0 disorder
disorder increase
positive s
disorder decrease
negative s
delta s
s prod- s reactants
enthalpy, h
heat change
h is negative
exothermic
h is positive
endothermic
gibbs free energy, g
=h-ts
g is negative
reaction spontaneous
g is positive
reaction non spontaneous
g is 0
equilibrium
overall order
x+y+z
rate
k[a]^x[b] ^y[c]^z
the larger the value of k_______
the faster the reaction
g=
Ea(for)-Ea(rev)
or
e of prod - e of reac
Ea (for)=
TS-react
Ea(rev)=
TS-prod
transition state
short lived max energy
activation energy
the larger the value of Ea the slower the reaction will be
spontaneous reactions
products above reactants
non spontaneous reactions
reactants above products
equilibrium reactions
reactants = products
catalyst
lowers TS
equilibrium constant, k
prod/react
(only for gases)
pure solids, pure liquids and water ________
are not included in the equilibrium expression
changes in concentration
add reactant - shift to right
remove reactant- shift to left
add product- shift to left
remove product- shift to right
changes in pressure
decrease in pressure- increase in volume more moles
increase in pressure- decrease in volume less moles
changes in temp
endothermic- remove product
exothermic- add product
tetrahedral angle
109*
trigonal planar angle
120*
linear angle
180*
saturated
single bond
unsaturated
multiple bond
saturated hydrocarbons
alkane
unsaturated hydrocarbons
alkene or alkyne
methane
ch4
ethane
ch3-ch3
propane
ch3-ch2-ch3
butane
ch3-ch2-ch2-ch3
pentane
c5h12
hexane
c6h14
heptane
c7h16
octane
c8h18
nonane
c9h20
decane
c10h22
methyl
-ch3
ethyl
-ch2-ch3
propyl
-ch2-ch2-ch3
isopropyl
-ch-(ch3)2
naming
identify the longest carbon chain
give the smallest number
list in abc order
naming alcohols
state number of OH group and end in -ol
naming esters
2 word name.. first from alcohol
2nd from acid end in -ate
aldehyde
r-c-h
||
o
ketone
r-c-r
||
o
naming aldehyde
end in -al
naming ketone
end in -one
carboxylic acid
r-c-oh
||
o
naming carboxylic acid
end in -ic acid
ester
r-c-or
||
o
ether
r-o-r
naming ether
add ether as 2nd word
naming amine
add amine as 2nd word
amine
r-nh2
ammino acids
nh2-c-c-oh
| ||
r o
isomers
same molecular formula but possess some structural difference
geometric isomers
cis and trans
optical isomers
non superimposable mirror images
have four different groups bonded 2 carbon
aromatic compounds
conjugated ring system
huckels law
4N+2=# of bonds
n should be 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
formation of an ester
reaction of cooh and an alcohol
with h+
markonikovs rule
adds h to alkene with more h and x to c with less h
anti-markonikovs rule,
h2o2/hbr
adds h to alkene with less h and x to c with more h
1* carbon
alcohol, aldehyde or cooh attached to c thats attached to 1 r
2* carbon
alcohol or ketone attached to c thats attached to 2 r's
1* carbon oxidation sequence
ethane>alcohol>aldehyde>COOH
2* carbon oxidation sequence
propane>alcohol>ketone
oxidizing agents
h2cro4, kmno4, na2cr2o7/h2so4
reducing agent
lialh4
stability of a carbocation
3>2>1
sn1
3>2>1
carbocation
sn2
1>2>3
acid catalyzed dehydration for alcohols
yields 2 products
major- loss of h on right
minor- loss of h on left
hydration reactions
alkene + h2o -> alcohol
two amino acids form _____
a peptide bond
(-h20)
anhydride
removal of h2o
triple pt
where all states coexist
sublimation
solid to gas
deposition
gas to solid
last point on line in phase diagram
critical point
phase diagram
left to right solid to liquid and on bottom gas
between solid and liquid m/f pt
between liquid and gas bp
ksp=
[m^n+][x^n-]
the smaller the value of ksp
the less soluble the salt will be
solubility
sqrt of ksp
oxidation occurs at the
anode
reduction occurs at the
cathode
optically active
a molecule that has a non superimposable mirror image
chiral
carbon bonded 2 four different groups
addition of br2
adds 2 br's
br2/ccl4
colorless
sp3 hybridized
4 single bonds
sp2 hybridized
1 double 3 singles
sp hybridized
linear