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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What elements are all living things composed of?
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus
Traces of magnesium, iodine, iron, calcium, and other minerals are also components of ________, the substance of life.
The unit of an element.
The unit of a compound.
Inorganic compounds.
compounds that do not contain the element carbon including salts and HCl
How are carbohydrates composed? (chemically)
Carbohydrates are composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, in a 1:2:1 ratio, respectively.
What are carbohydrates used for?
The are used as storage forms of energy or as structural molecules.
Name 2 carbohydrates that store energy in animals?
Name 1 that stores energy in plants?
1. Glucose, glycogen.
2. Starch.
Define monosaccharides.
Single sugar subunits.
Draw the structural formulas for these monosaccharides:
D-Fructose, D-Glucose, D-Galactose, D-Mannose
look on page 94
Define Disaccharides.
Disaccharides such as maltose and sucrose are composed of two monosaccharide subunits joined by dehydration synthesis, which involves loss of a water molecule.
Define dehydration sythesis.
Loss of a water molecule.
Look at figure 7.2. page 95
Look at figure 7.2. page 95
Define Polysaccharides.
Polysaccharides are polymers or chains fo repeating monosaccharides subunits.
Are glycogen and starch Polysaccharides or Monosaccharides?
a structural polysaccharide that serves a structural role in planes (cell wall)
Look at figure 7.3 pg 95.
Look at figure 7.3 pg 95.
Is cellulose soluble in water? Is starch soluble in water?
Both are insoluble.
Polysaccharides are formed by removing water
By adding water, large polymers can be broken down into smaller subunits in a process called hydrolysis.
What does a lipid consist of?
3 fatty acid molecules bonded toa single glycerol backbone.
How are lipids composed (chemical structure)?
composed of C,H, and O, just like carbohydrates but their H:O ratio is much greater than 2:1 because they have much more H than O.
Fatty acids have long carbon chains that give them their ______ (fatty) character and ________ acid groups that make them acidic.
1. hydrophobic
2. carboxylic
What reaction is required to form one fat molecule?
Three dehydration reactions
Do lipids form polymers?
What is the chief means of food storage in animals?
Lipids provide insulation and protection against injury because they are a major component of fatty _____ tissue.
Descirbe the chemical structure of Phospholipids
Conatin glycerol, two fatty acids, a phosphate group, and nitrogen containing alcohol.
Describe the chemical structure of waxes. (lipid derivative)
Esters of fatty acids and monodyroxylic alcohols.
Steroids (lipid derivative)
three fused cyclocheaxen rings and one fused cyclopentane ring
Describe the chemical structure of Carotenoids)
fatty acid-like carbon chains containing conjugated double bonds and carrying six-membered carbon rings at each end
compounds that are the pigments that produce red, yellow, orange, and brown colors in plants and animals. Also name 2 subgroups
1. Carotenoids
2. Carotenes, Xanthophylls
Describe the chemical structure of Porphyrins (lipid derivatives)
Also called tetrapyrroles, contain four joined pyrrole rings. They are often complexed with a metal.
__________ are polymers of amino acids.
What are proteins composed of?
C,H,O, and N, but may aslo contain phosphorus and sulfur.
Amino acids are joined by _______ through ________ reactions.
1. peptide bonds
2. dehydration reactions
polypeptide is another term for ________
Chains of peptide bonds produce a polymer called a _________
polypeptide or simply peptide
The sequence of amino acids in a protein is referred to as the ___________
1st degree/primary structure
Describe the second degree, secondary structure of proteins
proteins can coil or fold to form helices and b-pleated sheets
Simple proteins
composed entirely of amino acids
primarily globular in nature.
They are functional proteins that act as carriers or enzymes
albumins and globulins
Fibrous protein in nature and act as structural proteins. Collagen is one of these.
These proteins contain a simple protein portion plus at least one nonprotein fraction
conjugated proteins
protein bound to lipid
protein bound to carbohydrate
protein bound to pigmented molecules
protein complexed around a metal ion
protein containin ghistone or protamine (nuclear protein) bound to nucleic acids
These are proteins that function as chemical messengers secreted into circulation. Insulin and ACTH are these protein.
These are biological ctalysts that act by increasing the reate of chemical reactions important for biological functions (amylase, lipase, ATPase)
these contribute to the physcial support of a cell or tissue. They may be extracellular (collagen in cartilage, bone, and tendons) or intracellular (proteins in cell membranes)
structural proteins
These are carriers of important materials. For example, hemoglobin carrier oxygen in the circulation, and the cytochromes carry electrons during cellular respiration.
transport proteins
these bind to foreign paticles (antigens), including disease-causing organisms, that have entered the body
Organic catalysts
What is a catalyst?
any substance that affects the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being changed.
Enzymes are crucial to living thigns because all living systems must have ________ chemical activity.
how are enzymes and metabolism connected.
Enzymes regulate metabolism by speeding up or slowing down certain chemical reactions. They affect the reacticon rate by decreasing the activation energy.
Many enzymes are conjugated proteins and have a non proten _______ . In these cases, both components must be present of rthe enzyme to function.
Enzymes are very ______ they may catalyze only one reaction or one specific class of closely related reactions.
Name Richard Simmon's boyfriend.
Dr. Summers