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297 Cards in this Set

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tonsils
patches of lymphatic tissue located at the entrance to the pharynx.

palatine tonsils are the largest and most often infected.
spleen
body's largest lymphatic organ. Fits snugly between the diaphragm, stomach, and kidney.

Produces blood cells in the fetus and may resume this role in adults in event of extreme anemia.

Helps to stabilize blood volume by transferring excess plasma from the bloodstream into the lymphatic system.
why is immunity called a specific defense?
because it results from prior exposure to a pathogen and usually provides future protection only agains that particular pathogen.

The immune system is the third line of defense.
Defensins
peptides that kill microbes by creating holes in their membranes, they are produced by neutrophils and other cells and are found on the skin surface.
lysozyme
an enzyme that destroys bacteria by dissolving their cell walls.

found in mucus, tears, and saliva.
5 types of leukocytes
1. neutrophils: phagocytosis & lysosomes
2. eosinophils: allergy causing antigens
3.basophils: secrete histamine and heparin
4. lymphocytes: NK, T, and B cells
5. monocytes: macrophages, dendritic cells, microglia (cns).
haptens
molecules that are too small to be antigenic in themselves, but they can stimulate an immune response by binding to a host macromoclecule and creating a unique complex that the body recognizes as foreign.

i.e. penicilin is a hapten that binds to host proteins in allergic individuals, creating modified proteins that bind to mast cells and trigger masive reliease of histamine and other infammatory chemicals.
non-tracheophytes
plants lacking vascular tissue
angiosperms
flowering plants

they are divided into monocots, i.e. grass
and dicots, i.e. shrubs
xylem
The xylem of a plant is the system of tubes and transport cells that circulates water and dissolved minerals.
The phloem transports nutrients down the stem.
ecosystem
includes all of the living organisms in a specific area. These systems are the plants and animals interacting with their non-living environments (weather, Earth, Sun, soil, atmosphere)
biome
a large area on the Earth's surface that is defined by the types of animals and plants living there. A biome can be partially defined by the local climate patterns. You may also have more than one type of biome within a larger climate zone.
list of biomes
- Tropical Rainforest (Think about Brazil)
- Tropical Savanna (Think about Africa)
- Desert (Think about the middle east)
- Mediterranean Woodland (Think about coniferous forests)
- Mid-latitude Grassland (Think about Oklahoma)
- Mid-latitude Deciduous Forest (Think about the east coast of North America)
- Tundra (Think about frozen plains of Alaska)
- Ice Caps (Think about the poles)
bacteria
the simplest of creatures that are considered alive.
single-celled organisms with a cell wall and no nuclear membrane. DNA is grouped in an area called the nucleoid.
They don't have any organelles, just ribosomes.
PROTISTA ( a kingdom)
usually single celled organisms. They have a distinct nucleus. Some form colonies (or groups of single cells), some act more like animals (they move around and have large cells), and some are even like plants (algae, have chlorophyll and do photosynthesis).
FUNGI (kingdom)
This kingdom is made up of the decomposers (they absorb nutrients). Some of the members of this kingdom are fungi, slime molds, yeast, mold, and mushrooms.
PLANTAE (kingdom)
the characteristics of plants are that they have chlorophyll, cell walls (cellulose), and vacuoles. This kingdom also includes red, brown, and green algae.
ANIMALIA (kingdom)
must eat other organisms to survive. They cannot create their own food because they do not contain chlorophyll. They are able to move around, and most have sense organs of some type. Because they have those sense organs, they have nervous systems. Animals include species such as anemone, insects, lizards, and mammals.
prokaryotes
1.Prokaryotes have no organized nucleus.
2) Prokaryotes do not usually have any organelles. They will probably have ribosomes inside of their cells, but ribosomes are not technically considered organelles.
(3) Prokaryotes are very small.
4) Prokaryotes don't have mitosis or meiosis like other cells.
eukaryotes
(1) have an organized nucleus with a nuclear envelope. They have a "brain" for the cell. They have a discreet area where they keep their DNA. It is also said that they have a "true nucleus."
2. usually have organelles. They might have mitochondria, maybe a chloroplast, or some endoplasmic reticulum.
3.
What viruses can't do:
(1) They can't reproduce on their own. They need to infect or invade a host cell. That host cell will do all the work to duplicate the virus.
(2) They don't respond to anything. You can poke them or set up barriers, it doesn't matter. They either function or they are destroyed.
(3) They don't really have any working parts. While there some advanced viruses that seem fancy, viruses don't have any of the parts you would normally think of when you think of a cell. They have no nuclei, mitochondria, or ribosomes. Some viruses do not even have cytoplasm.
Evolution
change in the genetic composition of a population of organisms
ex. evolution of bacterial resistance to antibiotics, the appearance of new strains of the AIDS virrus, and the emergence of new species of organisms.
what wavelengths do plants absorb?
red and blue wavelengths
how many membranes in mitochondria?
A mitochondrion has an outer and inner membrane (cristae).
The outer membrane contains the mitochondrion parts. The inner molecule holds digestive enzymes that break down food.
neucleolus
inside of the nucleus it looks like a nucleus inside of the nucleus. It is made of RNA and protein. It does not have much DNA at all.
mitochondria
the powerhouses of the cell.
They are organelles that act like a digestive system that takes in nutrients, breaks them down, and creates energy for the cell.
How are mitochondria used in cellular respiration?
The matrix is filled with water (H2O) and proteins (enzymes). Those proteins take food molecules and combine them with oxygen (O2).
A mitochondrion may also be involved in controlling the concentration of calcium (Ca) within the cell.
Chloroplasts
convert the energy of the sun into sugars.
only found in plant cells and some protists. Animal cells do not have chloroplasts.
Plants are the basis of all life on Earth. They create sugars, and the byproduct of that process is the oxygen that we breathe. That process happens in the chloroplast. Mitochondria work in the opposite direction and break down the sugars and nutrients that the cell receives.
stroma
an area inside of the chloroplast where reactions occur and starches (sugars) are created
thylakoid
have chlorophyll molecules on their surface, that chlorophyll uses sunlight to create sugars. The stacks of sacs are connected by stromal lamellae
The lamellae act like the skeleton of the chloroplast, keeping all of the sacs a safe distance from each other and maximizing the efficiency of the organelle.
passive transport
osmosis, diffusion, channels, semipermeable membrane
Active transport
describes what happens when a cell uses energy to transport something
mitosis
the simple duplication of a cell and all of its parts
duplicates its DNA and the two new cells (daughter cells) have the same pieces and genetic code. Two identical copies come from one original. Start with one; get two that are the same. You get the idea.
(5) basic phases in the life-cycle of a cell.PMATI
PROPHASE - METAPHASE - ANAPHASE - TELOPHASE - INTERPHASE
Prophase:
A cell gets the idea that it is time to divide.
First, it has to get everything ready. You need to duplicate DNA, get certain pieces in the right position (centrioles), and generally prepare the cell for the process of mitotic division.
Metaphase:
Now all of the pieces are aligning themselves for the big split.
The DNA lines up along a central axis and the centrioles send out specialized tubules that connect to the DNA. The DNA (chromatin) has now condensed into chromosomes. Two strands of a chromosome are connected at the center with something called a centromere. The tubules actually connect to the centromere, not the DNA.
Anaphase:
The separation begins.
Half of the chromosomes are pulled to one side of the cell; half go the other way. When the chromosomes get to the side of the cell, it's time to move on to telophase.
Telophase:
Now the division is finishing up.
This is the time when the cell membrane closes in and splits the cell into two pieces. You have two separate cells each with half of the original DNA.
Interphase:
This is the normal state of a cell. We suppose that when it comes to cell division, you could call this the resting state.
It's just going about its daily business of surviving and making sure it has all of the nutrients and energy it needs. It is also getting ready for another division that will happen one day. It is duplicating its nucleic acids, so when it's time for prophase again, all the pieces are there.
meiosis
has two divisions, two PMATI
four cells are created where there was originally one.
When a cell goes through meiosis, it's not concerned about creating another working cell.
happens when it's time to reproduce an organism.
MEIOSIS I:
Pairs of chromosomes are lined up at the center of the cell and then pulled to each side.
crossing-over happens with the DNA. genes are mixed up, not resulting in a perfect duplicate like mitosis.The cell divides, leaving two new cells with a pair of chromosomes each. Normally the cell would begin to go about its business of living and slowly duplicate the chromosomes for another mitotic division. Since this is meiosis, there is a very short interphase and division begins again.
MEIOSIS II:
DNA that remains in the cell begins to condense and form short chromosomes. Each chromosome pair has a centromere.

Telophase II shows the DNA completely pulled to the sides and the cell membrane begins to pinch. When it's all over, you are left with four haploid cells that are called gametes. The eventual purpose of the gametes will be to find other gametes with which they can combine. When they do, they will form a new organism.
The centrioles also begin their journey to opposite sides of the cell. In Metaphase II all of the chromosomes line up along the center of the cell and the centrioles are in position for the duplication. Anaphase II shows the chromosomes split and move to opposite sides of the cell. Each one splits into two pieces. They don't divide up the DNA between the new cells; they split the DNA that exists. Each daughter cell will get one-half of the DNA needed to make a functioning cell.
Chromosomes
They carry all of the information used to help a cell grow, thrive, and reproduce.
Chromosomes are made up of DNA. Segments of DNA in specific patterns are called genes. Your genes make you who you are. You will find the chromosomes and genetic material in the nucleus of a cell. In prokaryotes, DNA floats in the cytoplasm in an area called the nucleoid.
chromatin
uncoiled and as loose strands of chromosomes
You will most likely find mRNA in the nucleus with the DNA. tRNA is found outside of the nucleus in the cytosol.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
packaging system
The ER works closely with the Golgi apparatus, ribososmes, RNA, mRNA, and tRNA. It creates a network of membranes found through the whole cell. The ER may also look different from cell to cell, depending on the cell's function.
Smooth ER
It acts as a storage organelle. It is important in the creation and storage of steroids. It also stores ions in solution that the cell may need at a later time.
Rough ER
synthesis and packaging of proteins
biochemistry
chemistry of the living world
population
a group of organisms that are all the same species.
A group of ducks would not be a population if there were mallard and wood ducks combined. Scientists would say that there are two populations existing in the same area.
gymnosperm
have a vascular system, seeds, and no flowers
binary fission
The method by which bacteria reproduce.
The circular DNA molecule is replicated; then the cell splits into two identical cells, each containing an exact copy of the original cell's DNA
cytokinesis
The division of the cytoplasm during cell division.
aliken
pioneer organism
what is the most abundant fibrous protein?
collagen
gluconeogenesis
non-carbohydrates such as fats and mino acids are made into glucose.
this occurs in the cytosol
What do microbodies(peroxisomes) convert H2O2 into?
H2O + O2
where are centrioles found
only in animal cells and are involved in cell division
when does sister chromatid separation occur?
in Anaphase
when does the nucleolus reappear?
in Telophase.
what is cytokinesis?
separation of cytoplasm in late Anaphase or early telophase
when do the chromatids shorten and thicken, nucleoli disappears, spindle fibers form, and centrioles in animal cells move to opposite ends?
in Prophase
when do chromasomes line up along equatorial plate?
in Metaphase
classify Blue-Green algae
prokaryotes from Kingdom Monera
aka cyanobacateria
as with other prokaryotes, reproduction is ASEXUAL and through binary fission.
in a lichen
cyanobacteria provides organic nutrients for the fungus
they live symbiotically together
the fungus offers protection
what are PERIPHERAL protein bound to?
charged polar head group of the bilayer.
they can be removed by mild treatment with salts.
what are integral membrane proteins held by?
hydrophobic interactions with the lipids
more difficult to remove than peripheral.
Detergents, organic solvents, and ultrasonic vibrations are needed for their removal.
peptidoglycan
make up the cell wall.
composed of polysaccharide and poypeptide chains.

Gram positive bacteria have a thick peptidoglycan layer and appear purpple after Gram Staining.
Teichoid acids
used as recognition and binding sites by bacterial viruses that causes infection
these acids are in Gram positive bacteria and covalently attached to the peptidoglycan layer.
myelin
made by Schwann cells
acts as an electrical insulator
increases the rate in which the axon can translate signals
order of nerve signal
presynaptic cell > synaptic cleft> postsynaptic cell
3 bones of the middle ear
incus, malleus, stapes
multiple sclerosis
body attacks myelin sheath
hormones of the Anterior Pituitary gland
HGH, LH, FSH, TSH, and Prolactin
Posterior Pituitary gland
ADH (vasopressin) and Oxytocin
both made in the hypothalamus
Cortex
makes aldosteron and cortison
aldosteron is involved in Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion in the kidneys collecting ducts, as well as a rise in blood pressure and blood volume. its an antidieuhretic
Adrenal Medulla
makes Epinephrine ( adrenaline) and norepinephrine
Pancreatic alpha cells
make Glucagon
beta calls make insulin
which hormones raise glucose levels in the blood?
glucagon and cortison
insulin lowers glucose levels
saprophyte
eats the dead
habitat
the physical environment in which the organism lives
niche
the role that an organism plays in it's natural community
lives, eat, reproduces
community
the interacting of different populations of species
producers
plants
primary consumer
herbivores ( shrimp )
secondary
carnivores ( mud crab )
tertiary
top carnivores ( striped bass )
what make up the largest animal phylum?
arthropods (grasshopper)
spiders, insects, crabs, lobsters

have jointed legs, exoskeletons, open circulatory systems, bilateral symmetry.
coelom
body cavity
morula
solid ball of cells
divid mitotically to form a hollow ball of cells called a blastula, which becomes a gastrula.
adaptive radiation
a number of different species emerge froma single ancestor
this exemplifies a divergent evolution
where does transcription occur?
the nucleus
what enzyme is required for the formation of mRNA?
RNA polymerase.
A to T ( 2 H bonds)
C to G ( 3 H bonds)
The higher the percentage of CG, the more stable the DNA sample will be and the higher will be it's melting point
genetic code is degenerate
because many amino acides are coded for by more than 1 codon
anticodon
a triplet of nucleotides on the t-RNA
Leydig cells
secrete Testosterone that allows germ cells to mature into sperm cells
what is secreted by the Corpus Luteum?
Estradiol and progesteron
CL is stimulated by LH to pr produce progesteron and estrogen, which allow for blood vessels to grow and for the uterine lining to prepare for implantation of the egg, which is to be fertilized. If LH was to decrease, as in the case of no fertilization, progesterone levels fall, which cause the uterine wall tissue to break down and menstruation begins
transduction
DNA transfer by a virus
list the invertebrates
mollusks, arthropods, annelids, and echinoderms
they are NOT chordates
viviparous mammal
one in which the offspring develop within the uterus
chordates that are NOT vertebrates
amphioxus and tunicates
chordates have a notochord at least some time during development, however, the amphioxus and tunicates do not lose their notochord.
molecular chaperones
prevent aggregation of newly formed proteins until they can properly fold.
the initiation step of protein synthesis in prokaryotes
places the initiator codon of the m-RNA at the proper site on the ribosome
duodenum
first part of the small intestine
cholecystokinin
hormone made by cells of the duodenum that stimulates bile release
gastrin
made in the stomach, stimulates HCl secretion
what causes an increases in breathing rate?
an increase in either H+ or CO2
A high blood O2 partial pressure would decrease breathing rate
which veins carry oxygenated blood?
pulmonary and umbilical in a fetus
cerebellum
part of the brain involved with muscle coordination, balance, and equilibrium
Corpus Callosum
divides the brain hemispheres, one of the largest myelinated tracts, allows the right and left-brain portions to communicate
where does the dark reaction occur?
the stroma of the chloroplasts
ATp and NADPH are both used in the fixation of carbon.

i.e. calvin cycle
what are parts of the axial skeleton?
skull, vertebra, and ribs
appendicular skeleton
bones of the arms, legs, pelvic bone, pectoral girdle.
ligaments
connect bone to bone
tendons
connect bone to muscle
epiphyseal plate
located at the ends of long bones, where there are regions of cartilagionus cells where growth occurs
class Gastropoda
largest molluscan class
slugs and snails

single shell is characteristic of this class
Class Crustacean
crab, shrimp, lobster, crayfish, and barnacles
Class Arachnida
spiders, ticks, scorpions, mites
Class Cephalopoda
octopus and squid
liver
-albumin synthesis
-bile production
-destruction of worn-out old red blood cells
-converts nitrogenous waste into urea
-glycogen storage
insulin, secreted by the pancreatic beta cells, decreases blood glucose levels and allow glucose to be converted to glycogen, it is then stored in the liver and skeletal muscle.
convergent evolution
two unrelated species have close resemblances
cacti and euphorbs
transpiration
loss of water by evaporation from leaves
hydrolysis
the use of H2O to split a molecule
hydration
addition of H2O
translocation
attachment of all or a portion of one chromosome to another
diapause
resting condition in the life of an insect
similar to hibernation
kidney
-most resorption takes place in the proximal convoluted tubule
-birds have a long loop of Henle, thus have concentrated urine
-from the Loop of Henle, urine passes through the distal convoluted tubule to the collecting duct
what is the consequence of the lack of vasopressin ( ADH )in the kidneys?
walls of the collecting duct are practically impermeable to water
large amounts of water would be lost and large quantities of urine would be produced. This is diabetes insipidus.
diabetes mellitus
in the absence of ADH, large quantities of urine are produced and in this type of diabetes sugar is found in the urine
introns
the DNA sequence that is cut out before leaving the nucleus in the form of m-RNA which has just been transcribed from DNA
exons are the expressed sequence
hemizygous
having only one single copy of a gene instead of 2
the male has XY sex chromosomes
chromatids
two longitudinal halves of each chromosome
osteichthys
bony fish
Class Agnatha
hagfish and lamprey
lack bones, scales, and fins
genetic drift
random changes in the allele frequency from one generation to another in small populations can lead to elimination of a particular allele by chance alone
speciation
a lineage-splitting event that produces two or more separate species.
adaptive radiation
an event in which a lineage rapidly diversifies, with the newly formed lineages evolving different adaptations. Different factors may trigger adaptive radiations, but each is a response to an opportunity.
autosomal recessive inheritance
males and females are equally affected. If both parents have the trait, all offspring will be affected. Carrier do not have the trait, it often skips generations.
what is the link between the endocrine and nervous systems?
the hypothalamus
helps to regulate the heart, arterial blood pressure, produce neurosecretory substances, regulate h2o and electrolyte balance, body temp., and maintain homeostasis.
induction
the process in an embryo in which one tissue causes another to differentiate
seen for the first time in gastrulation
the Islets of Langerhans
collection of alpha and beta cells of the pancrease
alpha secrete glucagone, beta insulin.
purines
Adenine and Guanine
pyrimidines
cytosine and thymine
uracil, which is not found in DNA
Apocrine sweat glands
respond to stress
exocrine sweat glands
respondible for maintenance of body temp
phosphodiester bonds
link adjacent nucleotides of DNA and RNA
DNA replicates semi-concervatively
what gland produces prolactin?
anterior pituitary
what is biological magnification?
refers to the process whereby certain substances such as pesticides or heavy metals become more concentrated in tissues of animals at each successive stage up the food web/chain.
aka BIOACCUMULATION and explains why it can be hazardous to eat large predatory fish such as tuna, sea bass, or marlin
What is the standard treatment for hemochromatosis
to decrease iron levels in the body by regular blood-letting to prevent accumulation in the body tissues.
increasing vitamin C intake improves iron absorption, which would exacerbate the problem
viruses
obligate parasites
don't have many enzymes and cellular components to synthesize proteins, replicate nucleic acid, and generate energy. It is impossible to culture a virus in an artificial medium without using a living host organism.
allopatric speciation
geographical isolation of a subpopulation of a species can result in the formation of two or more separate species.
where does photosynthesis occur?
Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts of green plants
Within the plant’s
chloroplasts, the energy from light is used to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugar
and oxygen gas.
what is carbon fixation?
the second phase,
called the light-independent reactions, this chemical energy fuels the attachment of carbon
dioxide to more complex carbon-based molecules.
dark reaction
what makes up the stroma?
The underside of a plant leaf contains many pores.Apore and two bordering bean-shaped
cells, called guard cells, make up a stoma
Under hot, dry conditions,
the plant avoids water loss by closing its stomata.
light-dependent reactions
The set of reactions that require light and that result in the production
of oxygen from water during photosynthesis.
light-independent reactions
The set of reactions that do not require light and that result
in the production of sugar from carbon dioxide during photosynthesis.
in what direction is DNA synthesized?
5' - 3'
population
consists of individuals of the same species that are living in the same area at the same time
vestigial trait
reduced or incompletely developed structure that has no function, but it is clearly similar to functioning organs in closely related species.
what type of division is meiosis considered to be?
reduction division
when does meiosis begin?
after chromosomes have been replicated in the S phase
how does bacteria transfer genetic material, since it doesn't undergo meiosis?
conjugation, via a conjugation tube, which forms between two bacterial cells.
in many cases conjugation is followed by an even called plasmid transfer.
why is DNA considered semiconservative?
because each newly made DNA molecule comprises one old strand and one new strand
DNA polymerase
polymerizes nucleotides to DNA. Catalyzes DNA synthesis
somatic cells
cells that are not involved in gamete formation
What is central dogma?
summarizes the flow of information in cells. it states that DNA codes for RNA which codes for proteins
biological magnification
the increase in concentration of toxins at successive levels of a food chain
what is the primary site for digestion and absorption in humans?
the small intestine
what serves as the site in the brain for coordinating, vision, hearing, speech, smell?
cerebrum
what serves as the passageway for nerves extending to and from the brain and controls automatic functions such as breathing, heart rate, and digestion?
the medulla
what serves as the control center for hunger, thirst, body temperature and blood pressure as well as the synthesis of hormones that will be stored in the pituitary gland?
the hypothalamus
what is composed primarily of lymph nodes and is responsible for destroying old red blood cells?
the spleen
heritable
traits that can be passed on to offspring
what is a group of individuals of the same species living in the same area at the same time?
population
natural selection acts on individuals, but evolutionary change
affects only populations
the ability of an individual to produce offspring is
fitness
individuals with high fitness produce many offspring
what is the trait that increases the fitness of an individual in a particular environment?
adaptation
when does natural selection occur?
when heritable variation in certain traits also leads to improved success in reproduction
because individuals with these traits produce many offspring with the same traits, the traits increase in frequency and evolution occurs
what is the term used to refer to the evolution of two or more distinct species from a single ancestral species?
speciation
what is the effort to name and classify organisms?
taxonomy
genus ( genera )
made up of closely related group of species
Homo: humans
species
distinct, identifiable type of organism

made up of individuals that regularly breed together or have characteristics that are distinct from those of other species
sapiens: humans
what are the 3 domains of life?
Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
classify: brown algae, red algae, fungi, amoebae, slime molds according to cell type
they are all eukaryotes
what is the interior of the rough ER and is also the interior or any sac-like structure in a cell or body?
lumen
found in virtually all eukaryotic cells

grow and divide independantly of other oranelles

centers for oxidation reactions which remove electrons from atoms and molecules
peroxisomes
H2O2 is highly corrosive, if escaped from the peroxisome it would damage organelle membranes. This doesn't occur however because h2o2 is detoxified and converted to WATER AND OXYGEN
specialized peroxisomes in plant leaves
glyxisomes
since seeds do not perform photosynthesis they do not contain this type of peroxisome
which cellular structures are involved in solid-waste processing and materials storage?
lysosomes
acidic lumen
the chemical energy required to build all of the organelles and do other types of work comes from ATP, most of which is produced in the cell's
mitochondria
2 membranes
most algal and plant cells possess an organelle called the
chloroplast
in which sunlight is converted to chemical energy during photosynthesis

thylakoids, which are stacked like pancakes into piles called grana

the region outside the thylakoids is called the stroma
which cells possess an outer cell wall in addition to their plasma membrane?
fungi, algae, plants
this is absent in animal, amoebae and other cells of animals.
what is a secondary cell wall feature which is a tough molecule, forms a branching, cagelike network that is almost impossible for enzymes to attack?
lignin
the combination of cellulose fibers and lignin in secondary cell walls makes up most of the material we call wood
The Hardy-Weinberg law
shows us how a genotype and phenotype stability can be achieved in a population
What are the assumptions for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (assuming a large population)
-random mating
-no isolation
-no net migration
-no mutation
-no natural selection
there should be no change in the gene pool of a population
what enzyme is required for the formation of mRNA?
RNA polymeraze
what is saltatory conduction?
when the impulse jumps from node to node, this increases velocity several fold
is bile an enzyme?
no
what is bile?
an emulsifying agent that is made by the liver and stored in the gall bladder

bile will emulsify fats and contains sodium bicarbonate that helps to neutralize the stomach acid
which cells develop in the fetal liver and spleen and produce antibodies that are in the blood and lymph?
B-cells
which cells are involved in immune reactions and develop in the thymus?
T-cells
what is Chargraff's Rule
the sum of the Purines ( Adenine and Guanine) equals the sum of the Pyrimidines(Cytosine and Thymine)
Uracil is also a pyrimidine, but is not found in the DNA

A+G=C+T
what is the term for the entry of more than one sperm into an egg?
polyspermy, this can cause abnormal development.
where is prolactin produced?
anterior pituitary gland

it stimulates milk secretion in mammals
when does an egg develop without fertilization?
parthenogenesis
seen in wasps
what kind of bacteria can cause disease?
pathogenic
which were the first organisms to perform oxygenic (oxygen producing) photosynthesis?
cyanobacteria
because oxygen is extremely electronegative, it's an efficient electron acceptor.
what were the first eukaryotes?
macroscopic algae
what are the only organisms capable of converting molecular nitrogen to ammonia?
bacteria

this is nitrogen fixation
eukaryotes use ___ as electron donors and ___ as electron acceptors
during cellular respiration
sugars
oxygen
cyanobacteria were formerly known as
blue-green algae
what is the term which refers to all eukaryotes that are not green plants, fungi, or animals
protist
tend to live in environments where they are surrounded by water
what species in the eukaryotic lineage causes malaria?
Apicomplexa
term used to characterize a unicellular protist that lacks a cell wall and is extremely flexible in shape
Amoeba
a single cell that develops into an adult organism, but it's not formed from gamete fusion like a zygote
spore
which four morphological features define chordates?
1. pharyngeal gill slits
2. a stiff and supportive but flexible rod called a notochord, which runs the length of the body
3. a bundle of nerve cells that runs the length of the body
4.muscular, postana tail
3 distinct regions of the brain in a vertabrate
1. forebrain (sense of smell)
2. midbrain (vision)
3. hindbrain ( balance and hearing)
1.cerebrum
3.cerebellum and medulla oblongada
what form of reproduction is vegetative propagation?
asexual
occurs only in flowering plants, the angiosperms
what happens to a cell in a hypotonic solution?
it swells

plants contain a cell wall and are more resistant to swelling in a hypotonic solution
what type of immunity is responsible for the production of immunoglobins or antibodies?
humoral immunity
what type of immunity are T-lymphocytes involved it?
cell-mediated immunity
however they do not make antibodies

B-lymphocytes produce antibodies
what is the most abundant metabolic waste product?
co2
what occurs in the S-phase?
DNA synthesis
what occurs in the G1 phase?
we see the production of mitochondria, ribosomes, and much protein synthesis
what occurs in the G2 phase?
cell prepares to divide
ribosomes are assembled in the nucleus
what is an immature male gametophyte with a hard covering?
a pollen grain
what is the chamber where pollen develops?
anther
what is the female part of the plant?
the pistil

consists of: the stigma, style, and ovary.

it's sticky and will catch pollen

the style is a tube-like structure connecting the stigma to the ovary
what is the difference between a plant and animal haploid gametophyte?
in plants it's multicellular while in animals it's unicellular.
What is the primary neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system?
acetylcholine
What is the primary neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system?
norepinephrine
list the non-vascular bryopytes
mosses, liverworts, hornworts

they have underground stems and live in moist and humid habitats
what cellular organelle would a microphage be rich in?
lysosomes
what is the phylum of all vertebrates?
chordata

present is a notochord at some stage in the life, as well as a dorsal tubular nerve cord.
what is the effect of greenhouse gases?
they cause heat to build up in the lower atmosphere

atmospheric concentrations include carbon dioxide, water, ozone, nitrous oxide.
what is the name given to the organism which is the combination of a blue-green alga with a fungus?
lichen
what are characteristics/functions of albumin?
it's the most abundant blood protein and is important for maintaining the blood's osmotic pressure
what are the 2 classic examples of sex-linked diseases?
colorblindness and hemophilia
which hormone increases blood glucose?
cortisol
which hormone increase Na+ and Cl- reabsorption, K+ secretion?
aldosteronef
which hormone increases blood calcium?
parathyroid hormone
epinepherine will
-increases blood glucose, blood flow to skeletal muscle
-increase heart rate, respiratory rate
-increase rate of glycogenolysis
-will constrict blood vessels to decrease blood supply to digestive tract and kidneys
-dilation of pupils
-increase blood flow to brain and blood pressure
a number of different spcies emerge from a single ancestor, example of "divergent evolution"
adaptive radiation
the finches on the Galapagos islands studied by Darwin
vascular tissue
specializes groups of cells that conduct water or dissolved nutrients from one part of the plant body to another
what are some examples of nonvascular plants?
liverworts, hornworts, and mosses
why are viruses not considered organisms?
because they are not cells and are not made up of cells.
bactereophage
virus that infects bacteria
e coli
annelids
segmented worms with a closed circulatory system
nephridia is their excretory organ
what will arise as a result of selective gene expression?
differenctiation
what is differentiation?
occurs when a cell has become specialized
what kind of a circulatory system exists in arthropods?
opena
what is the first proof of a new species?
reproductive isolation
The Five Kingdoms are living organisms sorted into
five different groups, Animalia, Plantea, Fungi, Protista and Monera.
what puts kingdoms animalia, plantea, and fungi into one category?
they are all multi-celled organisms.
what are the names of kingdoms which house only single-celled organisms?
The organisms in kingdoms protista and monera are all single-celled.
locomotive abilities are features of which two kingdoms?
animalia and protista
amphibians
cold-blooded and breath through their skin
reptiles
cold-blooded and lay eggs
which two organisms make up Kingdom Monera?
bacteria and blue-green algae

they do not have a nucleus
what phylum do snails, slugs, clams, and octopuses belong to?
molusca
what phylum do corals and sea anemones belong to?
cnidaria
what phylum do hookworms and pinworms ( round worms) belong to?
nematoda
what phylum, tapeworms and flukes ( flat worms)
platyhelminths
what phylum do sea urchins and sea stars ( which have radial symmetry) belong to?
echinodermata
organisms which have the greatest number of similarities are grouped in a
genus
which is the least abundant RNA?
mRNA, shortest lifespan
where, in the energy pyramid, is the greatest amount of energy found?
the producers
what is the name of beadlike structures composed of histones wrapped by the DNA?
nucleosomes
a chemical defense system designed to destroy microorganisms?
complement system
it completements the immune systeme and comprised of complex series of serum proteins
synap;sis occurs in prophase 1 of meiosis, not mitosis, what takes place?
pairing of homologous chromosomes.

distinguishing feature of meiosis from mitosis.

an x-shaped region called chiasmata forms
a cencerous cell exhibits uncontrolled mitosis, which is
defective cell differentiation
the formation of new species due to geographical isolation is called,
allopatric speciation
the rise of a new population because of a single individual, or a few individuals causing a change in allele frequency
Founder effect
when O2 binds to hemoglobin there is an increased affinity for O2 binding in the remaining subunits, this is called
cooperativity
the inactive form of an enzyme
zymogen

ex. pepcinogen, fibrinogen
when estrogen binds to cell membrane receptors, it doesn't cause a cascade .... why?
because it's a steroid and goes through the membrane
which hormones cause a cascade?
epinephrine, glucagon, insuline, growth factors
where is blood flow the slowest?
capillaries due to their having the greatest surface area
where is the greatest resistance to blood flow?
arterioles
in which case is the bacteria more heat resistant?
when there is more GC than AT
shrinkage of a cell due to water loss
plasmolysis
a solution in which the water concentration is lower than the solute concentration
hypertonic solution

here the cell shrinks

this is plasmolysis
group of small proteins made by most body cells following a viral attack
interferons

belong to a class of glycoproteins called cytokines
mold, mildew, yeast, mushroom, are examples of
fungi
what is algae an example of?
a protist
what is one type of algae that deviates from the rest?
blue green algae, cyanobacteria are classified as monera.
organisms that use redox rxns to produce ATP
chemotrophs ( humans)
what is the predominant plant form in ferns?
sporophyte
the increase in toxin concentration at subsequent levels of the food chain is referred to as
biological magnification
DNA double helix consists of a
backbone of alternating phosphate groups and sugars, held together by paired nitrogenous bases
the process by which the code on the mRNA is converted into a polypeptide chain is referred to as
translation
when both alleles are expressed equally in the phenotype is referred to as
co-dominance
the characterization of an individual's DNA by restriction analysis and gel electrophoresis is
DNA fingerprinting techniques
an organism in which DNA from another organism has been inserted into it's own DNA
is transgenic organism
when a chromosome undergoes replication prior to cell division, the number of chromosome remains the same, but each chromosome will contain
2 copies of it's DNA, which are referred to as sister chromatids
the rhythmic stretching and relaxing of the arteries as blood is forced through them is referred to as the
pulse, which provides a measure of the heart rate
the amount of force the blood exerts agains the blood vessels is
blood pressure
the phase of the cardiac cycle in which the atria briefly contract, filling the ventricles with blood
systole