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17 Cards in this Set

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How can we understand behavior and respond to it effectively and professionally based on evidence? Evidence Hierarchy (in declining order)
1. Systematic reviews
2. Causal studies - Controlled trials; RCT
3. Observational Studies - Case control; cohort.
4. Descriptive Studies-Case studies; case series.
5. Cross-sectional comparisons
6. Expert opinion-most behavior guidance literature is in this category!
Define behavior.

What are the four "musts" for cooperative interactions
Response of an individual to his or her environment.

1. Ability to read social cues.
2. Interpret facial emotions.
3. Infer what others think.
4. Self regulate.
Describe the four general ideas of the behavior of Children.
1. Children are normal until proven otherwise.
2. Most behaviors are explainable/adaptive
3. Qualitatively changes with age.
4. Multi- method assessment best: Direct observation, Psychometric, Dynamic.
What are the four child behavior basics?
1. Attachment to caregiver
2. Cognitive development
3. Temperament
4. Fears
When does attachment to caregiver develop and what does it provide?
Develops in first year and provides secure base for exploration of environment.
What occurs once focused attachment develops?
Infant behavior is organized toward goal of maintaining proximity-caregiver gives comfort, protection, support in unfamiliar environments, when tired, and when upset.
What behaviors does attachment contribute to?
1. Emotional regulation
2. Social attribution
3. Socialization
4. Moral development
5. Intergenerational transmission of behavior
Is attachment classification a diagnosis or indicator of psychopathology?
No.
Although most young children with diruptive behavior disorders have insecure attachments, most insecurely attached young children do not have disruptive behavior disorders.
Desribe the following:
Secure attachment:
Insecure attachment:
Anxious/Resistant attachment:
1. Higher sociability, increased compliance with parent requests, more effective emotional regulation
2. Less sociability, poorer peer relationships, greater anger, lower self control, increased behavior problems
3. Exaggerated dependence on caregiver, Dramatic expressions of need: Anger, Anxiety, Difficulty calming down.
Attachment and Dentistry
What are the five factors that put Children at risk?
1. Children raised in institutions
2. Multiple caregivers
3. Maltreated children
4. Parent with mental illness/substance abuse
5. Difficult temperament-ie. Irritability and negative emotionality. Elicits poorer quality of caregiver response.
What are the three general principles of Cognitive Development?
Mastery of skills related to thinking.
1. Interrelated with social-cognitive development.
2. Dependent on: Brain maturation, cognitive + social stimulation.
3. Problems in one area affect other areas.
Name the seven basic ideas of Maturational Theory. Hall and Gesell
1. Children develop along fixed sequences
2. Genetically controlled internal factors are primary
3. Development rates vary- sequence does not.
4. Behavioral change is linked to physical maturation.
5. Children must have inner readiness to perform a task for teaching to be effective (don't try to teach calculus to a 3 year old).
6. Children have inherent abilities to self-regulate.
7. Development can be characterized as typical, accelerated, or delayed compared to population norms.
Name the four basic ideas of Pigetian Theory
1. Mental structure changes over time.
2. Sequential stages are roughly linked to child's age.
3. Child participates in learning process by interacting with external world.
4. Children do not think like adults.
Piagetian Stages of Cognitive Development
What are the ages associated with the stage and the way of understanding?
1. Sensorimotor
2. Preoperational
3. Concrete Operations
4. Formal Operations
1. birth - 2: Direct sensations
2. 2 - 6: Own perceptions
3. 6 - 11: Reason using stable rule system
4. >12: Abstract thought, can reason about ideas
What are the five basic ideas of Preoperational Thinking?
1. Age 2 - 6 years
2. Thinking linked to concrete objects
3. Understands reality only from own viewpoint
4. Uses unique system to organize objects/events
5. Communication skills key
What are the four basic ideas of Language Development?
1. Capacity inherent in brain structure
2. Tied to concept and memory development
3. Capacity to represent reality with symbols
4. Follows predictable sequence
What are the five steps involved in the predictable sequence of language development?
1. Recognition of speech sounds
2. Comprehension
3. Production
4. Cognitive changes precede linguistic competence
5. Must hear language to develop appropriately