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42 Cards in this Set

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Cystic Hygroma
Lympangioma around neck (commonly associated with Turner's syndrome)
Where are Dermoid Cysts found?

What is a teratoma?
Benign teratoma in ovary

Teratoma contain elements of all three germ cell lines.
What is Desmoid?

Desmoids are commonly found in...
Abdominal Fibromatosis

Women who has recently underwent C-section.
What is hamartoma?
Tumor that is in the right place but contains wrong structure. (Ex - Tumor in lung that is made up of vessels, bronchial tissue and lymphoid tissue)
What is Choristoma?
Tumor in wrong place but around right structure.

Examples: Ectopic rest of adrenals at the base of kidney.
What is chordoma?
Benign tumor originating from embroynic remnants of the primitive notochord.
Which stain is used to visualize adenocarcinomas?
Mucicarmine or PAS
List two types of polyps?
Pednucleated - Has a stalk

Sessile - Doesn't have a stalk (its flat)
Chordoma
Benign tumor originating from embroynic remnants of the primitive notochord
Most tumors in kids are called...
blastomas
What does Acute Leukemia cells called? What do they contain?
Called blasts, immature cells having immature chromatin and nucleoli)
Acute promyelocytic leukemia
Premyelocytes have lost of granules that if released through therapy can cause DIC
What is a desmoplasia?
Abundant collagenous connective tissue stroma stimulated by neoplasm.
What kind of stain is used for mucin?
Mucicarmine

PAS (carbohydrates in the mucus)
Fibroma versus Fibroadenoma
Fibroma - Benign tumor of fibroblasts (abundant collagen)

Fibroadenoma - benign tumor of breast tissue
Benign and malignant tumor of plasma cells is called?

Lymphocytes

Leukocytes
Plasmacytoma and Multiple myeloma

Lymphoma

Leukemia
Name the benign and malignant carcinomas associated with these tissues?

Placental epithelium
Tumors of Melanocytes
Placental epithelium-Hydatidiform mole and Choriocarcinoma

Tumors of Melanocytes - Nevus and Malignant Melanoma
What are...

Hepatoma
Melanoma
Seminoma
Hepatoma-Carcinoma arising from hepatocytes
Melanoma-Carcinoma arising from Melanocytes (benign is called nevus)
Seminoma-Carcinoma arising from testicular cells
What is HUMARA? and it is used for?
HUMARA - Human Androgen Receptor Gene

Used to test monoclonality in neoplasms

Over 90% of popolulation shows polymorphism for this allel. However, Tumors show same allel, confirming the monoclonal neoplasm and non-random X-inactivation theory for tumors.
Dysplasia of cervix is due to...and it is called?
HPV and it is called Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia
treatment strategy for acute premyelocytic leukemia?
Retinoic acid (stimulates cell growth and eventual death)
Common childhood tumors?
WARNR

Wilm's tumor, Acute Leukemia, Rhabdomyosarcoma, Retinoblastoma, Neuroblastoma
Autosomal Dominant Tumors
BRHMNN FML

Breast and ovarian cancer
Retinoblastoma
Hereditary Polyposis cancer
Multiple endocrine neoplasia
Neurofibromatosis
Nevoid Basal cell carcinoma

Familial Adenomatous Polyposis
Melanoma
Li-Fraumeni Syndrome
List the four types of cells that are most likely to cause cancer when damaged?
(1) Tumor suppresor gene (2) DNA repair gene (3) Apoptosis gene (4) Proto-oncogene
Haploinsufficiency
Loss of function of a recessive gene caused by damage to SINGLE allele is called haploinsufficiency.
Groups of CDK Inhibitors
Cip/kip family

INK4/ARF family (Inhibitor of kinase 4/alternative reading frame)
Three components of cip/kip family are...

Function?
p21 (regualted by p53)
p27 (regualted by TGNb)
p57

Block all CDK-Cyclin complexes (broad inhibitors)
Two types of INK4a/ARF CDK inhibitors?
p16INK4a - Inhibits CDK4-CyclinD complex (prevents Rb from being phosphorylating)

p14ARF (increases p52 levels by inhibiting MDM2)
p53 is feedback regulated by...
MDM2 (MDM2 levels go up due to p14ARF)
How does p53 impact cyclin-CDK complexes?
p53 upregulated p21, which inhibits CDK4-CyclinD complex.
What is the function of ATM?
Atexia Telengiectesia Mutated

Detects double-stranded DNA breaks and upregulated p53 levels.
p53 stops cell cycle via...
p21 - which blocks cdk4-cyclinD complex formation.

GADD45 - which inhibits CDK1
Which genes code for PDGF and FGF?
PDGF - c-sis

FGF - hst1 and int2
What is leukocoria?
White pupil finding in children with Retinoblastoma.
List two viruses that stop pRB from binding to E2F?
SV40 and HPV E7
Hallmark of defective DNA mismatch repair?

Example of a Syndrome?
Microsatellite instability

Hereditary nonpolyposis cancer syndrome
Germline mutations in which genes are associated with Hereditary nonpolyposis cancer syndrome?
MSH1, MSH6, MLH1, PMS and PMS2
Which syndrome is example of nucleotide excision repair defect?
Xeroderma pigmentosa
How does APC work?
APC binds to beta-catenin and degrades it. (beta-catenin is transcription factor).

Binding of WNT to WNT receptor results in separation of beta-catenin from APC and transcription begins.

IN the absence of WNT, APC degrades beta-catenin. In the absence of APC, beta-catenin is constitutively active (and hence c-oncogene)
List three cancers associated with homologous recombination defect?
Ataxia Telengiectesia
Fanconi's anemia
Bloom's syndrome
List three possible mechanism via which viruses can cause cancer?
(1) Acute transforming viruses -Carry their own v-oncogene through a process called transduction.

Slow transforming viruses activate p-oncogene through a process called insertional mutagenesis.

Other retroviruses carry unique genes that can cause cancer.
Explain Transduction and Insertional Mutagenesis? (regarding retroviruses)
Transduction - Process by which acute transforming viruses carry v-oncogenes and cause caner.

Insertional Mutagenesis - Process by which slow transforming viruses activate p-oncogenes and cause cancer.