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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How much total body water does extracellular fluid account for?
How much total body water does intracellular fluid account for?
What units are used to describe body fluid volumes?
moles, equivalents, pH, buffers, diffusion, and osmosis
What organelle is affected in Tay Sach's disease?
lysosomes lack a specific enzyme to degrade materials
What functions do the RER and SER perform in the cell?
RER: protein synthesis

SER: lipid transportation or androgen production
What is the difference between transcription and translation?
Transcription: DNA --> RNA

Translation: RNA --> protein
What are the 3 types of neurons?
sensory, interneuron, motor
What are the four zones of the nueron?
1. receptor/dendritic
2. site where action potential is propagated
3. axonal process
4. nerve endings
What are the 2 types of physiochemical changes that can occur in the neuron?
non-propagated (synaptic, generator, electrochemical potentials)

propagated (action potential/nerve impulse)
What are neutrophins?
Proteins that support the neuron (NGF, BDNF, NT-3, NT-4, NT-5)
What is the difference between Schwann cells and Oligodendrogliocytes?
Schwann cells exist in the PNS

Oligodendrogliocytes exist in the CNS
Describe the 3 kinds of muscle.
Skeletal: striated, voluntary, multinucleated, surrounded by sarcolemma, constitute 40-50% of body weight

Cardiac: involuntary, intercalated disks allow efficient contraction

Smooth: nonstriated, involuntary, found in hollow organs
What ions are responsible for depolarization? repolarization?
NA influx = depolarization

K efflux = repolarization
Describe the contractile mechanism.
-activated by an action potential
-Twitch: single AP causes brief contraction followed by relaxation
-myosin: thick filament
-actin: thin filament
-sarcomere: basic functional unit of contraction in skeletal system separated by Z lines
-for contraction to occur myosin and actin attach to one another to form bridges to allow myofilaments to slide past one another
-calcium is required for muscle contraction and is stored in the ER of smooth muscle
What is the difference between isotonic and isometric contraction?
Isotonic: contraction against a constant load with approximation of ends of muscle

Isometric: contraction that does not involve appreciable decrease in muscle length
Describe Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne's muscular dystrophy, and Becker's Muscular dystrophy.
Muscular dystrophy: group of genetic disorders characterized by muscle atrophy due to mutation in genes for muscle proteins (dystrophin)

Duchenne's muscular dystrophy: serious X-linked disorder caused by absence of dystrophin protein

Becker's muscular dystrophy: dystrophin protein present but either altered or reduced
What are the 3 layers of the eye?
Sclera: outer protective layer that forms the transparent cornea

Choroid: contains blood vessels

Retina: contains rods, cones, bipolar cels, ganglion cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells
What fibers form the optic nerve?
ganglion cell axons
Which muscles constrict/dilate the pupil?
constriction is achieved by circular muscle fibers

radial fibers dilate the pupil
What is the difference between gelatinous vitreous humor nad the aqueous humor?
Gelatinous vitreous humor: space between lens and retina

Aqueous humor: clear liquid that nourishes the cornea and lens, produced in ciliary body, reabsorbed via trabeculae into the Canal of Schlemm
Where is there the greatest visual acuity?
Fovea/Macula lutea
What is the neural pathway of vision?
ganglion cells --> optic nerve --> optic chiasm --> optic tract --> lateral geniculate body --> geniculocarine tract --> occipital lobes
What are rods responsible for? Cones?
Rods: night vision, contain rhodopsin

Cones: day and color vision, contain blue, green, and red
What causes a hyperpolarizing receptor potential in vision?
closing of Na channels in the outer segments of rods and cones (occurs in the dark)
What area of the occipital lobe is responsible for color vision?
What are the muscles that move the eye up, down, side to side, and rotate?
Rectus Muscles (4): side to side, up and down

Oblique muscles: rotation
What kind of color blindness is most common?
What is homonymous hemianopia? heteronymous hemianopia?
Homonymous: half blindness at the same side of both visual fields due to lesion in optic pathway

Heteronymous: half blindness at opposite ends of visual fields
What are the 3 parts of the ear? What structures do they contain?
External ear: consists of auricle/pinna, external auditory canal, tympanic membrane (eardrum)

Middle Ear: contains the three ear bones (malleus, incus, and stapes), auditory (Eustachian) tube which connects the middle ear to the throat

Inner Ear (labyrinth): contains mechanoreceptors for hearing in the chochlea known as the Organ of Corti and mechanoreceptors for balance known as cristae ampullaris
Describe the Organ of Corti.
Responsible for hearing
Contains hair cells in 4 rows (3 outer and 1 inner)
Hair cells are innervated by cochlear division of CVIII

Hearing pathway: Organ of Corti --> dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei --> inferior colliculi --> medial geniculate body --> auditory cortex
Describe the action potentials involved in equilibrium.
stereocilium is pushed towards a taller stereocilium causing the opening of cation channels to open via tip link
Describe the utricle and saccule.
contains hair cells embedded in a gelatinous membrane with CaCO3 crystals called otoliths
There are patches of hair in the organ of corti, utricle, sacculus, and semicircular canals. What are they responsible for?
Hair cells in the organ of Corti: hearing

Utricle: horizontal acceleration

Sacculus: vertical acceleration

Semicircular canals: rotation
Describe: conduction deafness, nerve deafness, central deafness, otosclerosis, and presbycusis
Conduction deafness: impairment of one of the structures that transmits vibrations (punctured eardrum, arthritis of auditory bones)

Nerve deafness: impairment of CVIII or the receptors for hearing in the cochlea, can occur as a complication from viral infections

Central deafness: damage to auditory areas in temporal lobes, very rare

Otosclerosis: inherited bone disorder of stapes

Presbycusis: progressive nerve deafness associated with age
What is the taste receptor for Umami? Salty?
Umami: L-glutamate, mGluR4

Salty: Alpha and gamma, ENaC
What is ageusia? hypogeusia? dysgeusia?

*What medications can cause a temporary loss of taste sensation
Ageusia: lack of taste sensation

Hypogeusia: diminished sense of taste

Dysgeusia: disturbed sense of taste

*captopril and penicillamine
sequence of events for contraction
-discharge of motor neuron
-release of ACh
- binding of ACh and nAChR
-increase K and Na conductance
-generation of end plate potential
-generation of action potential in muscle fibers
-inward spread of depolarization along T-tubules
-release of Ca from sacrcoplasmic reticulum and diffusion to thick/thin filaments
-binding of Ca to troponin C which uncovers myosin binding sites on actin
-formation of cross link bridges
sequence of events for relaxation
-Ca pumped back into sarcoplasmic reticulum
-release of Ca from troponin
-cessation of actin myosin interaction
which colliculi is associated with hearing?
inferior colliculi
sequence of events in phototransduction
-incident light
-structural change in retinene
-conformational change of photopigment
-activation of transducin
-activation of phosphodiesterase
-closure of Na channels
-decreased release of transmitter
-response in bipolar cells and other neural elements