Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

14 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Atrophy (Atrophic)?
A decrease or shrinkage in cellular size.
Mostly affects skeletal muscles,the heart, secondary sex organs and brain.
Physiologic Atrophy
Occurs in early development.
Example: Thymus gland undergoes physiologic atrophy during childhood.
Pathologic Atrophy
Occurs as a result of DECREASE workload, pressure, use, blood supply, nutrition, hormonal & nervous stimulation. Ex: Prolonged time in bed.
Autophagic Vacuoles
Membrane-bound vesicles w/in cell that contain cellular debris & hydrolytic enzymes. Resulting from chronic malnutrition.
Describe 3 major types of Hyperplasia: #1
Compensatory: Adaptive mechanism that enables certain organs to regenerate. Ex: Removal of part of liver leads to hyperplasia (regrowth) of the remaining cells. HGF (protien)
Describe 3 major types of Hyperplasia: #2
Hormonal: Occurs chiefly in estrogen-dependent organs such as uterus & breast. Ex: After ovulation stimulates the endometrium to grow and thicken in prep. 4 fert. ovum.
Describe 3 major types of Hyperplasia: #3
Pathologic: Abnormal proliferation of normal cells, usually in response to excessive hormonal stimulation or growth factors on target cells. Ex: Excessive menstrual bleeding.
An increase in the size of cells & consequently the size of the affected organ. Associated w/ accumulation of protien in the cellular componants. NOT cellular fluid.
Physiologic Hypertrophy:
Skeletal muscles respond to heavy work load. When a kidney is removed-the remaining kidney adapts w/ an increase in size & # of cells.
Pathologic Hypertrophy:
Patho-physiologic hypertrophy in the heart secondary to hypertension or problem valves.
Increase in the # of cells resulting from an increased rate of cellular division.
Refers to abnormal changes in size, shape and organization of mature cells. (related to hyperplasia) Often called atypical hyperplasia.
Atypical Hyperplasia
Often encountered in the epithelial tissue of the cervix and respiratory tract. Strongly associated with common neoplastic growths & often found next to cancer cells.
A reverseable replacement of one mature cell type by another. Ex: Replacement of normal columnar ciliated epithelial cells of the bronchial airway lining by stratified squamous epithelial cells.