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16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Respiratory Acidosis
* Excess carbon dioxide retention
* patient is <7.35pH
* increase in carbonic acid
Causes of Respiratory Acidosis
1. CNS depression from drugs, injury, or disease
2. Asphyxia (airway obstruction)
3. Hypoventilation related to a disease
Symptoms of Respiratory Acidosis
1. Restlessness
2. Confusion
3. Coma
4. Headaches
5. SOB and tachypnea
6. Decreased reflexes
7. Hypoxemia
8. Tachycardia and arrhythmias
Treatment of Respiratory Acidosis
1. Bronchodilator
2. Oxygen
3. Treat hyperkalemia
4. Treat infection
5. Treat underlying causes
6. Chest CPT
Respiratory Alkalosis
excess CO2 excretion
Possible causes of Respiratory Alkalosis
1. Hyperventilation from anxiety, pain, or improper ventilator settings
2. Respiratory stimulation due to drugs, disease, hypoxia, or fever
3. Gram negative bacteremia
Symptoms of Respiratory Alkalosis
1. Deep and rapid respirations
2. Dizziness
3. Agitation
4. Circumoral and peripheral paresthesia
5. Carpopedal spasms, twitching, and muscle weakness
Treatment of Respiratory Alkalosis
1. Treat underlying cause: sepsis, salicylate overdos
2. Hypoxia: give O2
3. Anxiety: gove a sedative
4. Hyperventilation: breathe into a paper bag
5. Adjust ventilator settings
Metabolic Acidosis
Bicarbonate or HCO3 loss with acid retention
Possible causes of Metabolic Acidosis
1. Bicarbonate depletion from diarrhea
2. Excess production of organic acids from hepatic disease, endocrine disorders, shock, or drug intoxication
3. Inadequate excretion of acids from renal disease
Symptoms of Metabolic Acidosis
1. Headache and lethargy
2. Kussmaul's respirations
3. Hypotension
4. Stupor, possibly leading to coma and death
5. Anorexia
6. N/V/D
7. Dehydration
8. Warm, flushed skin
9. Fruity-smelling breath
Treatment of Metabolic Acidosis
1. Mechanical ventilation is usually first line of therapy
2. Treat DKA
3. Administer sodium bicarbonate
4. Dialysis
Metabolic Alkalosis
HCO3 retention and acid loss
Possible causes of Metabolic Alkalosis
1. Loss of hydrochloric acid from prolonged vomiting or gastric suctioning
2. Loss of potassium from increased renal excretion (as in diuretic therapy) or steroids
3. Excessive alkali ingestion
Symptoms of Metabolic Alkalosis
1. Picking at bedclothes
2. Twitching
3. Confusion
4. N/V/D
5.Trousseau's sign
6. Slow, shallow respirations
Treatment of Metabolic Alkalosis
1. D/C thiazide diuretics and NG suctioning
2. Give an antimetic for N/V
3. Meds to excrete bicarb