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102 Cards in this Set

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What is negative feedback?
Correcting any change from normal. Bringing the body back to homeostasis.
What is a sign?
Some that can be measured. Ex: fever Objective
Name two things that calculate a range of normal
Standard Deviation, Mathematical Average
What is a phenotype?
The expression of a gene.
What two things are examples of phenotype.
the color of your eyes, sickle cell anemia
What are intrinsic factors?
age, sex, history
Name two factors classified as intrinsic in the etiology of a disease.
genotype, medical history
Which three cell structures are the most important in the production of insulin packets.
chromosome, rough endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus
What are the four cell activities most important in the inflammatory response?
chemotaxis, cytokine release, phagocytosis, lysoosomal activity
What three cell activities are particularly characteristic of specific immune responses by a B lymphocyte?
cell division, antibody production, complement activation
What two things function as opsonins?
antibodies, complement factors
What three factors are most likely responsible for producing the signs and symptoms of allergic bronchial asthma?
mast cells, antigens, antibody E
What three factors cooperate in the normal pathway for activation of the complement system?
antigens, antibody G, antibody M
What two factors most likely predispose a person to opportunistic disease?
cortisol therapy and long term antibiotics
What is etiology?
the cause of the disease
What is pathogenesis?
how the cells grow.........can be uncontrolled
What is the karyotype?
complete set of chromosomes in a person, all normal and accounted for
What is genotype?
how the gene made up?
What could go wrong in using genetic engineering to fix a gene?
You could possibly cause a new problem
What are the four cardinal signs of inflammation?
calor, dolor, rubor, tumor
How does calor develop?
cytokines dilate arterioles
What is the primary cause for calor?
increased bloodflow
How does dolor develop?
cytokines stimulate free nerve endings
What is the primary cause for dolor?
swelling, histamine, open wounds
How does rubor develop?
cytokines dilate arterioles
What is the primary cause for rubor?
increased bloodflow
How does tumor develop?
cytokines open capillary pores wider
What is the primary cause for tumor?
trauma
What is the significance of colony stimulating factors?
sends signals to increase WBC production during inflammation
What is the significance of complement factors?
used in pathogen activity
What is the significance of interleukins?
the stimulate the immune reaction
What is the significance of lymphokines?
A messenger, related to Antibody E that is a signaling chemical
What is the significance of memory cells?
provide quick strong response to pathogen
What is the significance of pyrogens?
chemicals that cause fever to stimulate WBC growth
Name three non-inflammatory defenses the body uses to defend itself against pathogens.
Normal flora on skin, normal urine flow, tears
What is the difference between active and passive immunization?
active: vaccination
Passive: mothers milk
What is congestion?
overabundance of blood within a tissue
What is edema?
excess acummulation of fluid between cells or body cavities
What is a thrombus?
blood clot against the wall of an artery or vein, stationary
What is an emboli?
A Moving blood clot
What is ischemia?
poor blood flow
What is infarct
tissue death
What is a situation in which a benign neoplasm might require medical attention?
Location, can put pressure and stop blood flow
Why do most chemotherapeutic agents used to treat cancer have potentially harmful side effects?
kill healthy cells
Discuss one mechanism for the onset of an autoimmune disease?
immune system possesses antigens that resemble a pathogen causing a reaction
Allergic bronchial asthma and signs and symptoms?
constricted swollen airways, excess mucus, air trapping, wheezing
Bronchial asthma and treatments
must immediatly open airways, avoid allergens, carry inhaler
Two distinctly different situations which would put a person at rick for opportunistic diseases
Depressed immune system (chemo, or HIV)
open wound
Name three things that best fit the pathogenesis of an infection.
cytokine release, chemotaxis, opsonin activity
Name two factors that would be extrinsic in the etiology of a disease.
nutrient deficiencies, bacteria
Name two things that are examples of a karotype
X and Y chromosomes, trisomy 21
The DNA you inherited contains assembly instructions for what?
antibodies, membrane proteins, complement factors
What two cell structures are most immediately and directly involved with a macrophage's protective role?
lysosome, cell membrane
What two cell structures are most immediately and directly involved with a lymphocyte production of antibodies?
chromosome, rough endoplasmic reticulum
What three cells are involved with the primary humoral response the first time you are exposed to a pathogen?
B lymphocyte, macrophage, T helper cell
What two factors are most directly involved in the lymphokine release so critical to cell mediated immunity?
antigen, basophil
What four factors are most critical to cytokine release in an allergy?
mast cell, antigen, antibody E, basophil
What three factors generate a type III reaction?
insulin, Antibody G and M
What two factors trigger type 4 reactions?
lanolin, cytotoxic lymphocyte
What three factors are thought to be controls on a person's immune-inflammatory activity to minimize the damage to normal cells
T suppressor cells, epinephrine, cortisol
What is homeostasis?
All bodies functioning at normal
What is hypertrophy?
increase in organ size due to increase in individual cell size
What is hyperplasia?
increase in number of cells in tissue leading to increase in size of organ
What is phenotype?
what the genes actually physically express
What in genotype?
Genetic make up - blue print
What is ischemia?
poor blood flow w/o tissue death
What is infarct?
poor blood flow with tissue death
What is a thrombus?
stationary clot
What is an embolism?
moveable clot
What is neoplasia?
tumor benign or malignant from new tissue growth
What is metaplasia?
normal cell but in the wrong place
What is congestion?
collection of blood
What is edema?
collection of fluid
What are the four cardinal signs and symptoms of inflammation?
redness, heat, pain, swelling
What is the pathogenesis of redness?
cell that is damaged and releases lytokines
What is the pathogenesis of heat?
cytokines dilate arterioles, increased bloodflow
What is the pathogenesis of pain?
cytokines dilate capillaries causing swelling and tumor
What is the pathogenesis of swelling?
finally the cytokines stimulate free nerve endings causing pain
Explain the possible health significance of pyrogens.
Facilitates WBC growth
Name two distinctly different mechanisims for a person's adverse drug reaction to pcn.
anaphylaxis - life threatening
atopic - localized
What is the oncological significance of antioxidants.
help release bad toxins to slow production of harmful cells that may be cancerous
what is the oncological significance of tumor-specific antigens.
determine the severeness of the cells that may be determined benign and malignant
What is the immunological/inflammatory significance of colony-stimulating factors?
slowly boost WBC
What is the immunological/inflammatory significance of hyposensitization.
They increase the number of different antibodies
What is the immunological/inflammatory significance of interleukins?
stimulate immune reaction
What is the immunological/inflammatory significance of lymphokines?
send a signal to attack pathogen
What is the immunological/inflammatory significance of opsonins?
promote leukocytosis
What is the immunological/inflammatory significance of perforins?
CTL's poke holes in infected cells
How does the stress response affect the S/S of Type 1 hyperimmune response
if the stress leads to opinephrine it eliviates the S/S
Discuss a possible immunological therapy for CA
interleukins
What are the two diagnostic features of allergic hyperimmunity?
epinephrine, cortisol
What is the primary concern in treating immune-related skin disorders?
maintanence of the skin barrier
Name three things that would best fit the etiology of a typical infectious disease?
bacteria, genetic susceptibility, virus
Is medical history and genotype intrinsic or extrinsic factors?
Intrinsic
A chromosomal gene contains the assembly instructions for
protein
What three cellular structures are most immediately involved in making packaged protein?
rough endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, chromosomes
What two cellular structures are most directly involved in a phagocytes protective response to cell/tissue injury?
lysosomes, cell membrane
What three cell types are most adept at the generalizd phagocytic activity at the heart of a person's inflammatory response?
macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils
What three cell types are most critical to the primary cellular immune response?
macrophage, lymphocyte, helper cells
What are the Type III factors that generate an allergic reaction?
Antibody G, M and penicillin
What are the Type I factors that generate an allergic reaction?
Antiboy E, basophil, penicillin
Discuss the difficulty inherent in fixing a defective gene which produces a disease state
create a side effect that could be just as diminishing as the first