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40 Cards in this Set

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1. What are the functions of ribosomes, lysosomes, mitochondria, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus?
ribosomes---cell structures that utilize mRNA to make protiens
lysosomes---cell sructures that contain digestive enzymes to break down other materials
mitochondria---cellular structure that produces ATP for energy
smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum---have no ribosomes attached
golgi apparatus---processes and packages macromolecules synthesized by the cell
2. What are the functions of the plasma membrane proteins?
transport, enzyme, cell surface receptor, cell surface markers, cell adhesion, atachment of cell cytoskeleton
3. Why can’t glucose, amino acids, sodium and calcium ions move across the cell membrane?
they require another substance (hormone, enzyme, etc) to facilitate tgheir crossing the cell membrane
4. What are the differences among uniport, symport, and antiport?
uniport---one direction movement
symport---2 molecules moving simultaneoulsy in one direction
antiport---opposite directions
5. What are the functions of endocytosis and exocytosis?
exocytosis--- is when cells active transport mechanisms by which the cells move large protiens--secrete substances such as hormones and neurotransmitters
6. Define atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia, and dysplasia.
p.46
atrrophy---decrease in cell size
hypertrophy---cells and organs increase due to increase of protein
hyperplasia---increase in the number of cells due to increased rate of cellular division
metaplasia---reversablecell process wherein tissues change beyond normal cell growth
dysplasia---
7. List general mechanisms of cell injury.
hypoxic injury-lack of sufficient oxygen
free radicals-electrically uncharged atom or group of atoms having an unpaired electron which makes it unstable
chemical injury---biochemical interaction between a toxic substance and the cell's plasma membrane
physical---
biological---
other---immunologic and inflammitory, genetic, nutritional
8. What are the reversible and irreversible changes of hypoxic injury?
reversable---ATP depletion, cell swelling, detachment of ribosomes
irriversable---point of no return, severe vauolization occurs of the mitochondria and Ca++ moves into the cell.....loss of phospholipids, changes in cytoskeleton, inflammation, free radicals flare, lipid breakdown
9. How does ionizing radiation cause cell damage?
direct damage to DNA, free radicals damage DNA
10. What is the difference between necrosis and apoptosis?
apoptosis--- is programed cell death
necrosis---sum of cellular changes after local cell death and the process of cellular autodigestion
11. What are the common locations of coagulative, liquefactive, caseous, fat, and gangrenous necrosis?
necrosis:
coagulative---Ht Kd, adrenal glands
liquefactive---Neurons and glial cells of the brain,
Hydrolytic enzymes
caseous---Tuberculous pulmonary infection
Combination of coagulative and liquefactive necrosis
fat---Breast, pancreas, and other abdominal organs
Action of lipases
gangrenous---limbs, toes fingers...Clinical term
Dry vs. wet gangrene
Gas gangrene
12. What are the mechanisms of edema?
increased capillary permeability and hydrostatic pressure and lymph obstruction
13. How are thirst and ADH secretion regulated?
increased thirst and then ADH is released
14. How are acidosis and alkalosis compensated?
acidosis ---is hyperventilaiton and increased acid titration
alkalosis---is hypo and decreased acid titration
15. Describe the flow of the genetic information in the cell.
DNA replicaition, RNA transcription, RNA translation
16. What are the karyotypes of Down, Turner, and Klinefelter syndromes?
down syndrome----trisomy 21
kleinfleter---XXY or XXXY for a boy
turner---a girl with only 1 X chromosome
17. Describe the effects of genes and environment on the development of disease.
genetic orgin---cystic fibrosis
environmental-pneumonia
genetic and environment---diabetes
18. List 10 examples of adult multifactorial diseases.
coronary heart disease
hypertension
breast cancer
colorectal cancer
diabetes
obesity
alhemers
alcohoism
psciatric disorders
NOT---Amoyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
19. What are the 3 lines of body defenses?
-First line of defense
Innate resistance
-Second line of defense
Inflammation
-Third line of defense
Adaptive (acquired) immunity
20. What are the local manifestations of inflammation?
Redness
Swelling
Pain
Loss of function

.....Acute Inflammatory ResponseCauses
Infection, mechanical damage, ischemia, nutrient deprivation, temperature extremes, radiation, etc.
Vascular responses
Blood vessel dilation, increased vascular permeability and leakage, white blood cell adherence to the inner walls of the vessels and migration through the vessels
----
21. What are the systemic effects of inflammation?
-Fever
-Leukocytosis
-Increased levels of circulating plasma proteins
22. What cells are involved in chronic inflammation?
Inflammation lasts 2 weeks or longer
May occur as a distinct process without much acute inflammation
Characterized by a ......

-dense infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages (developed from circulatory monocytes)
<If macrophages are unable to protect the host from tissue damage, the body attempts to wall off and isolate the infected site, thus forming a granuloma>
23. What are the features of acquired (adaptive) immunity?
specifity, memory function, antibody/antigen and lymphocyte activity
24. What cells produce antibodies?
plasma cells
25.Define allergy, autoimmunity, and alloimmunity
*hypersensitivity:Altered immunologic response to an antigen that results in disease or damage to the host
Allergy---Deleterious effects of hypersensitivity to environmental (exogenous) antigens
Autoimmunity---Disturbance in the immunologic tolerance of self-antigens
Alloimmunity---Immune reaction to tissues of another individual
26. What are the characteristics and examples of 4 types of hypersensitivities?
Characterized by the immune mechanism.....
1. Type I (anaphylactic) IgE mediated. For example, hay fever, penicillin shock

2. Type II (cytotoxic)
Tissue-specific reactions
For example, incompatible blood transfusion, Graves disease

3.Type III (immune complex)
Antigen-antibody-complement activation. For example, glomerulonephritis, rheumatoid arthritis

4.Type IV (delayed)
Cell mediated. For example, contact dermatitis, graft rejection, poisen ivy
27. What are the 4 sequential stages of infection?
Colonization---Pathogens present on or in the body without tissue invasion

Invasion---Resists host defenses by attaching to host cells

Multiplication---Uses host nutrients and environment for reproduction

Spread---Migrates locally or through bloodstream and lymphatics
28. What is the number one cause of death worldwide?
infectious disease
29. What body systems are involved in stress response?
nervous, endocrine, immune
30. What are the 3 successive stages of general adaptation syndrome?
Alarm stage
CNS is aroused and body’s defenses are mobilized
Stage of resistance or adaptation
Mobilization contributes to fight or flight responses
Stage of exhaustion
Continuous stress causes progressive breakdown of compensatory mechanisms
alarm---CNS is aware of body's defense
adaption---flight or fright
exhaustion---homeostasis
31. List common stress-related diseases and conditions.
---Cardiovascular system: CAD, hypertension, stroke, and arrhythmias
---Muscular system: tension headache, and muscle contraction backache
---Connective tissues: RA, and other autoimmune diseases
---Pulmonary system: asthma, and hay fever
---Immune system: immunodeficiency or suppression, and autoimmune diseases
---Gastrointestinal system: ulcer, IBS, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, and ulcerative colitis
----Genitourinary system: diuresis, impotence, and frigidity
---Integumentary system: eczema, neurodermatitis, and acne
---Endocrine system: diabetes mellitus, and amenorrhea
---Central nervous system: fatigue and lethargy, type A behavior, overeating, depression, and insomnia
32. What is cancer?
abnormal growth, division and cell differentiation
33. How do benign tumors differentiated from malignant tumors?
benign is encapsulated..similar to normal cells

malignant---rapid growth, invasive, nonincapsulated,not differentiated, high mitotic index, can spread distantly
34.What are the characteristics of cancer?
Transformation
The process by which a normal cell becomes a cancer cell
Autonomy
Cancer cell’s independence from normal cellular controls
Anaplasia
Loss of differentiation, which is the process of developing specialized functions
35. How is cancer graded?
The higher the grade, the more aggressive the cancer
36. How does cancer spread? Describe how breast cancer metastasizes.
Dysplasia
Disorderly but non-cancerous growth and reversible change, featured by pleomorphism (wide variation in the shape and size of cells and nuclei), hyperchromatism (darkly stained nuclei), and loss of normal orientation
In situ neoplasm: cancer in the original location
Invasive neoplasm: cancer in deeper tissues
Describe the TNM system of cancer staging.
Based on the anatomic extent of the tumor, including the size of the primary tumor, the degree to which it has invaded, and the extent to which it has spread
The higher the stage, the larger, more invasive and metastatic the tumor
Stages
Stage 1: confined to its organ of origin
Stage 2: locally invasive
Stage 3: regional structures
Stage 4: distant sites
38. What are the common clinical manifestations of cancer?
Syndrome of cachexia.Most severe form of malnutrition. Present in 80% of cancer patients at death. Manifested by:

Anorexia- early satiety, weight loss, anemia, asthenia, taste alterations, and altered protein, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism

Anemia-A decrease of hemoglobin in the blood
Mechanisms

Chronic bleeding- resulting in iron deficiency, severe malnutrition, medical therapies, or malignancy in blood-forming organs

-Leukopenia and thrombocytopenia-
Direct tumor invasion to the bone marrow causes both leukopenia and thrombocytopenia.....
Chemotherapy drugs are toxic to the bone marrow

Infection-Risk increases when the absolute neutrophil and lymphocyte counts fall
Paraneoplastic syndromes
Symptom complexes that cannot be explained by the local or distant spread of the tumor or by the effects of hormones released by the tissue from which the tumor arose
39. What are the 3 leading causes of death in children?
leukemias, CNS tumors, sarcomas, and embryonic tumors
40. What are the common childhood cancers? test
Retinoblastoma
Neuroblastoma
Nephroblastoma