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84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Amastia
No Boobs
Polymastia
Extra Boob
Polythelia
Extra Nipple
Mastitis
Breast inflammation usually in lactating women
Fibrocystic changes
palpable nodules; small cysts and a stringlike consistency of brearst tissue.
Fibroadenoma
most common benign tumor of the female breast especially in young women.
Risk factors for Breast cancer
1. nullipara
2. First child after age of 30
3. Obesity
4. Estrogen therapy
5. Early menses and late menopause
Nullipara
No children, ever
Where does mestasis occur
The axillary lymphatics
Where does breast cancer occur
upper outer quadrant
What does breast cancer cause
nipple retraction and skin puckering
Where is the pituitary gland located
Selca turcica
When does gigantism occur
Prepubertally
When does acromegally occur
postpubertally with somatotrophic adenomas
glactorrhea
extraa lactation from boobs
What is caused by Diabetes insipidus
Lack of ADH with resulting polyura
Graves Disease
Autoimmune hyperthyroidism with exophthalmos (bulging eyes)
Causes of Hyppthyroidism
1. Aplasia
2. Thyrdoiditis
3. Iatrogenic and iodine deficiency
Cretinism
1. Decreased thyroid in prenatal dwarf
2. retardation
3. Dystrophy of bones
4. Low BMR
aplasia
no organ
iatrogenic
doctor
Myxedema
1. Decreased thyroid in adults
2. Dry skin
3. welling face
4. mental deterioration
5. Low BMR
What is PTH secretion stimulated by
Low blood calcium levels
Hyperparathyroidism
Primary is usally due to benign adenoma and involves one gland but if hyperplasia it will involve all four glands

Secondary- related to chronic renal failure
Adrenal medulla is controlled by
Inpute from teh sympathetic ns and secretes epinephrine (adrenaline)
Important glucocorticoid
Cortisone and is a potent antinflammatory
Cushing Syndromes
hypercortisolism; usually due to exogenous steriod treatment. Symptoms: moon face and buffal hump
hirutism
excess hair on face and body
adrenogenital syndrome
results in virilization of femail neonates and early puberty in boys
Addisons disease
adrenal insufficiency;
1. weakness
2. Low BP
3. Hyperpigmentation
4. Fainting
What damages DNA
Direct injury from radiation
what is more sensitive to radiation changes
cells that divide a lot
abrasion
scrape
contusion
bruise
hematoma
swelling
incision
cut
laceration
jagged cut
Burns
1st degree: erythema and edema
2nd degree: blisters
3rd degree- extend 2 subcutaneous level or further, may require skin grafts
Cause death: Rule of nines
Burns that exceed 9% of body are serious
frostbite
Exposure to subfreeezing temp casues crystallization of tissue fluids. When rewarmed tissue become blotchy red and swollen; necrotic tissue may impair healing
trenchfoot
prolonged exposure to non-freesing cold and moist environment,. Cappillarys permeability is dilated. Necrosis, blisters and uslerc exist.
hyperthermia
high blood temp
rhabdomyolysis
skeletal muscle destroyed
kwashiorkor
protein malnutrition that is severe in kids
marasmus
kids wasting away
glossitis
inflamed tongue
cheilosis
lip disorder
keratomalacia
ulcer and soft cornea
xerophtalmia
dry, thick conjunctiva
koilonychia
nail deformed
minamata disease
disorder mercury in seafood
Fracture Types- 8
1. Simple-closed fracture
2. Comminuted-bone splintered
3. Impacted- bone fragment in another
4. Incomplete- continuity of bone not all destroyed
5. Greenstick- One side broke, one bent
6. Stress- Fine hairline fractures
7. Compound- open fracture and skin
8. Pathologic- due to weakening of bones
Vitamin C deficiency
scurvy
Niacin deficiency
Pellegra 3 D's
B12 deficiency
lack of intrinsic factor and leads to pernicious anemia with folate deficiency
Folate
lack of can lead to neural tube defects
Vitamin K deficiency
leads to diminished clotting factor activity
Vitamin D
lack of can lead to osteomalacia
osteomalacia
bone loss adults
Ricketts or Rosary
Inadequate mineralization of bone and ccartilage at growth plate in kids

Prominence of costochondral junction in kids
Iron deficiency
leads to anemia or koilonychia
S/S of Meniere's
Idiopathic, affects 40-60 year olds, vertigo, low frequency hearing loss, tinnutus.
Tinnutus
noise in ear
Causes of vertigo
trauma, neuroma, post infection
Cause of conductive hearing loss
obstruction, otosclerosis, ruptured TM
presbycusis
old age, hearing loss
vertigo
dizzy
cholesteatoma
tumor in ear and mastoid
glue ear
kids tubes
otosclerosis
hearing loss
otitis media
ear infection
Sclera
outer layer, white tissue, transparent
choroid
vascular layer, ciliary body secretes fluid and muscles change shape lens, iris is color of eye
Retina
Pigemented cells restrict lite
Cause of keratitis
herpes virus infection cornea vesicles
Allergic conjunctivitis
Type I hypersensitivity
Most common cause of cataracts
trauma; itis, diabetes
retinoblastoma
kids tumor
melanoma
adult eye trumor
myopia
near sighted
hyperopia
farsighted
astigmatism
blurry
presbycusis
old age hearing loss
Ricketts
inadequate mineralization of bone and cartilage at growth plate.