Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/48

Click to flip

48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Frontal Lobe
SPERM Speech Problem Solving Emotions Reasoning Movement
Temporal Lobe
MpH Memory Hearing
Four sections of the brain
Cerebrum Cerebellum Brain Stem Meningies
What is a low-grade tumor vs. a high grade tumor?
Low-grade tumors are less aggressive tumors HIGH-GRADE tumors are very likely to GROW and SPREAD.
Name 3 general tests to diagnose a CNS tumor.
Biopsy CT/CAT MRI
Name 4 factors associated with the growth and proliferation of tumors.
Genetic Environmental Hormonal
Name at least 3 of the 6 acquired cellular capabilities leading to malignant growth.
Tissue invasion and metastasis, Limitless replication potential, Sustained angiogenesis, Evading apoptosis, Self-sufficiency in growth signals, Insensitivity to anti-growth signals
What is the angiogenic switch?
The moment at which a tumor begins to over express "pro-angiogenic factors" such as VEGF
T or F?"
True, VEGF is a normal growth factor, its job is to create new blood vessels during embryonic development, new blood vessels after injury, and new vessels to reroute blood flow around blocked vessels. It is only when VEGF is overexpressed is it linked to cancer.
VEGF is associated with a _____(good, poor) prognosis, in a variety of ______(solid, blood) cancers.
Poor prognosis, solid tumors… Bladder cancer, Breast cancer, Cervical cancer, Colorectal cancer, Esophageal cancer, Glioblastoma multiforme, Head and Neck cancer, Lung cancer, Ovarian cancer, Pancreatic Cancer, Renal cell carcinoma
Tumor secretion of VEGF may help ______(increase, suppress) the immune antihumoral response.
Suppress
Ependymal cell
Lines the ventricles and aids in the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.
Meninges
System of three membranes that envelope the CNS. Job: Protection of the CNS.
Name 8 neurological SXS
N/V, Weakness, Paralysis, Seizures, HA, changes in vision, sensory changes, changes in mood/behavior, changes in reflexes, changes in cranial nerve function, ataxia.
Schwannoma"
"Ages: 30-60 Benign, Idiopathic, Genetic
Ependyoma
Ages: KIDS AKA: Osteosarcoma (in adults) Triggered by oncogenes Intracranial ependyomas in young children= 4 years but 25-40% <2yrs Spinal endyoma--15-40 Often found in the VENTRICLES
Oligodendroglioma
Age: Young and middle aged adults Possible genetic component
Tumors in the meninges covering the spinal cord are called…
Extramedullary-intradural
As a spinal tumor grows list some anatomy that can be affected…
Blood vessels, Bones of the spine, Meninges, Nerve roots, Spinal cord cells
Extradural spinal tumor
Most are metastatic carcinomas of the lungs, breasts, prostate, kidneys, thyroid, and lymphoma. They affect the vertebrae. Osteosarcoma -- adults Ewings sarcoma--kids ((LYTIC LESIONS)
Astrocytoma spinal tumor
Kids and teens.
CN 7 is (motor, sensory)"
5 Sensory 7 Motor
Facial nerve tumors can cause what symptoms?
Bell's Palsy Ear-- tinnitus, vertigo, deafness Affected smell, vision, and taste,
What is proprioception?
The sense of the relative position of neighbouring parts of the body. Unlike the six exteroceptive senses (sight, taste, smell, touch, hearing, and balance) by which we perceive the outside world, and interoceptive senses, by which we perceive the pain and movement of internal organs, proprioception is a third distinct sensory modality that provides feedback solely on the status of the body internally. It is the sense that indicates whether the body is moving with required effort, as well as where the various parts of the body are located in relation to each other.
Parietal Lobe
SENSATIONS OF…Touch, Temperature, Pain, Pressure
Occipital Lobe
Vision
6 Spaces and Matters in order of outside to inside
Epidural Space Dura Mater, Subdural Space, Arachnoid Mater, Subarachnoid Space, Pia Mater
Name 5 symptoms a child may present with if they have a CNS tumor
SSN Seizure, Staring, Nausea: VVW Vomiting, Vision, Weakness: PPI Pain, Puberty, Irritability: HAG Headache, Apnea, Growing (probs)
Name 4 types of treatment for a CNS tumor.
Surgery Chemotherapy Radiation Stem cell/bone marrow transplant
Name the 4 viruses/bacteria associated with cancer.
EBV, HPV, H. Pylori, Hep. B
Tumors spark angiogenesis to obtain_____&______.
Oxygen, and nutrients
The angiogenic switch leads to ______.(And what is that?)
Neurovascularization-proliferatrion of blood vessels in tissue not normally containing them.
Name the 4 major cells of the endothelial cells in angiogenesis.
1. Break through basal lamina (this wraps around existing blood vessels) 2. Migrate toward source signals 3. Proliferation 4. Formation of tubes
List two ways in which tumors can avoid the immune system.
1. They inhibit the dendritic cells (antigen-presenting cells) which stimulate B & T cells. 2. VEGF can prevent the function maturation of dendritic cells. (As matured dendritic cells, they have a better ability to communicated with the T cells).
Shawann cell
A glial cell that wraps around the nerve fiber of the PNS and forms the myelin sheaths of the peripheral axons.
Astrocytes
The largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. They help make up the BBB.
Oligodendrocytes
Job: Produce myelin sheaths for the CNS
What is papilledema?
Bulging of the optic disk.
Astrocytoma
"Ages: 20-45 Causes: Radiation, nitrate (cured meats),
Meningioma
Ages: 40-70 Middle aged women, radiation, genetic, 90% are benign
Tumors inside the spinal cord are called…
Intramedullary
Tumors between the meninges and bones of the spine are called…
Extradural
Tumors that start in the spinal tissue are called (secondary, primary); vs, tumors that spread to the spine from some other place which are called (secondary, primary).
Primary, Secondary
Intradural Spinal Tumor
Most are benign, Meningiomas, Neurofibromas, and gliomas , Infiltrate and destroy cord parenchyma (functional tissue). Doesn't usually metastasize
SXS of spinal tumors..name 2.
Back pain, changes in sensation, paralysis, scoliosis, bowel and bladder incontinence.
What CN is associated with Bell's palsy?
CN 7
Mouth, lip and tongue cancer symptoms
Lump, soreness/swelling that doesn't go away, persisting patches, sore that doesn't heal and bleeds, difficulty chewing/swallowing, and loose teeth.
What does "anaplasic" mean?
Out of control tumor.