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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
First Line of Defense
Physical and mechanical barriers
Skin
Linings of the gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and respiratory tracts
Sloughing off of cells
Coughing and sneezing
Flushing
Vomiting
Mucus and cilia
Biochemical barriers
Synthesized and secreted saliva, tears, ear wax, sweat, and mucus
Antimicrobial peptides
Normal bacterial flora
Second Line of Defense
Inflammatory response
Caused by a variety of materials
Infection, mechanical damage, ischemia, nutrient deprivation, temperature extremes, radiation, etc.
Local manifestations
Inflammatory response
Vascular response
Blood vessel dilation, increased vascular permeability and leakage, white blood cell adherence to the inner walls of the vessels and migration through the vessels
Inflammation
Goals
Limit and control the inflammatory process
Prevent and limit infection and further damage
Initiate adaptive immune response
Initiate healing
Cellular Mediators of Inflammation
Cellular components
Granulocytes, platelets, monocytes, and lymphocytes
Cell surface receptors
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs)
Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)
Toll-like receptors
Complement receptors
Scavenger receptors
Mast Cells
Cellular bags of granules located in the loose connective tissues close to blood vessels
Skin, digestive lining, and respiratory tract
Mast Cells Activation
Activation
Physical injury, chemical agents, immunologic processes, and toll-like receptors
Chemical release in two ways
Degranulation and synthesis of lipid-derived chemical mediators
Mast Cells Degranulation
Histamine
Vasoactive amine that causes temporary, rapid constriction of the large blood vessels and the dilation of the postcapillary venules
Retraction of endothelial cells lining the capillaries
Receptors
H1 receptor (proinflammatory)
H2 receptor (anti-inflammatory)
Chemotactic factors
Neutrophil chemotactic factor
Attracts neutrophils
Eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis (ECF-A)
Attracts eosinophils
Histamine
Receptors
H1 receptor
Proinflammatory
Present in smooth muscle cells of the bronchi
H2 receptor
Anti-inflammatory
Present on parietal cells of the stomach mucosa
Induces the secretion of gastric acid
Mast Cell Synthesis of Mediators
Leukotrienes
Product of arachidonic acid from mast cell membranes
Similar effects to histamine in later stages
Prostaglandins
Similar effects to leukotrienes; they also induce pain
Platelet-activating factor
Similar effect to leukotrienes and platelet activation
Mononuclear Phagocyte System
Located in strategic places throughout
Microglia
Alveolar macrophages LUNGS
Kupffer cells LIVER
Kidney mesangial cells KIDNEY
Histiocytes LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE
Lymph nodes LYMPH
2e line of defense = Inflamatory
NOn specific; no specific cells/ antibodies. Can be cut or bacteria.
Does not have a memory
Stereo typic; reaction same every time again
Cascade effect; Has to be completed step 1 - 5
4 Cardinal Signs of Inflammation
redness
heat
swelling
Pain
Inflammation Response
-Blood vessel dilation
Increased permeability + leakage
WBC move to outside rim of bloodvessel and attracht certain cells to area
1st to arrive in inflammatory system
Neutrophills, granular WBC Predominant Phagocytes. Arrives within 6 - 12 hrs The neutrofill is short lived, becomes component of purulent exudate. Removed through epitheliam or lymphatic system
Complement factor that initiates Neutrophils
C3a and C5a
Ulcerative colitis is ?
Ulcerative colitis is not transmural. It involves the mucosa layer and in some cases the submucosa. Ulcerative colitis is characterized by continuous lesions in the distal colon and the rectum.
T-helper cells are also known as
There are two types of helper cells both of which are CD 4+.
T helper cells 1 are increased or overactive in delayed hypersensitivity reaction and produce chemical mediators that stimulate T killer cells.
T helper 2 cells are overactive in allergies. T helper 2 stimulates production of Ig E's. CD 8+ cells are T cytotoxic cells (killer) and T suppressor cells.
The HLA genes are located on chromosome./?
The HLA genes are located on chromosome 6.
The MHC region is divided in Class 1 and Class 2 HLA genes.
HLA A, B, and C are class one MHC proteins.
HLA D proteins are class 2. HLA A, B, and C are found on all nucleated cells in the body. HLA D on B cells, macrophages and memory cells.
Class 1 MHC proteins present to CD........
Class 1 MHC proteins present to CD8+ cells
CD4 cells must be presented an antigen with a class .........
CD4 cells must be presented an antigen with a class 2 MHC protein.
Crohn's disease is characterized by
Crohn's disease is characterized by discontinuous or skip lesions. One of the ways to make a differential diagnosis of Crohn's disease is to look for discontinuous lesion in the ileocecal area
Crohn's disease is transmural. It spreads thru lymph tissue and across the entire wall of the intestine and it can spread to other organs. This causes the formation of fistulas
Ig ???????? is small in size and crosses the placenta to confer passive acquired immunity to the fetus and the newborn.
Ig G is small in size and crosses the placenta to confer passive acquired immunity to the fetus and the newborn.
Ig ??????? is the first antibody to increase in an immune challenge
Ig M is the first antibody to increase in an immune challenge
IgE + Eosinifills fight off parasites
IgE + Eosinifills fight off parasites
Ig ???????? is the secretory antibody. It is found bound to mucosa cells and in secretions such as tears, saliva and G.I. fluids. It is a dimer and also contains a secretory piece.
Ig A is the secretory antibody. It is found bound to mucosa cells and in secretions such as tears, saliva and G.I. fluids. It is a dimer and also contains a secretory piece.
There are only two types of light chains Kappa and lambda. There are five classes of antibodies and five different Heavy chains which are class specific.
There are only two types of light chains Kappa and lambda. There are five classes of antibodies and five different Heavy chains which are class specific.
HLA B27 is associated with increased incidences of Crohn's and Ulcerative Colitis True. A large number of patients with inflammatory bowel disease have the HLA marker known as B27. It is seen in larger numbers than in these patients than in the general population.
HLA B27 is associated with increased incidences of Crohn's and Ulcerative Colitis True. A large number of patients with inflammatory bowel disease have the HLA marker known as B27. It is seen in larger numbers than in these patients than in the general population.
Type two hypersensitivity reactions are also known as tissue specific reactions. True These are also known as cytotoxic reactions and are directed against mainly red blood cells. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia's , Rh incompatibilities, Autoimmune Graves Disease and myasthenia gravis are type 2 reactions.
Type two hypersensitivity reactions are also known as tissue specific reactions. True These are also known as cytotoxic reactions and are directed against mainly red blood cells. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia's , Rh incompatibilities, Autoimmune Graves Disease and myasthenia gravis are type 2 reactions.
Addison's disease is a type ??????? reaction.
Addison's disease is a type III reaction and is a type of hypoaldosteronism.
Xanthine derivatives such as theophylline are classified as phosphodiesterase inhibitors. True.
They work by blocking the enzyme phosphodiesterase which is used to break down c- AMP. If the enzyme is blocked than c- AMP levels increase and bronchial smooth mucle will relax.
Poison ivy is an example of a Type ?????????
Poison ivy is an example of a Type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction. It is mediated by T killer cells not antibodies.
Ig M is a pentamer. True/ False
It is composed of five basic antibody units joined together. It is the largest in molecular size and the first antibody to increase during an immune challenge.
The inflammatory reaction is sterotypic and has no memory.
The Immune system system has memory cells and is specific.
Ig ?????_ and _??????_ can bind complement.
Ig G_ and _M_ can bind complement.
Complement factors are a series of 9 - 11 plasma proteins that belong to the _???????? globulin fraction.
Complement factors are a series of 9 - 11 plasma proteins that belong to the _Beta_ globulin fraction.
C3b and C5b are complement factors that act as ??????
C3b and C5b are complement factors that act as opsonins
The mediator of the immediate (first 30 min.) permeability changes in inflammation is _??????????__.
The mediator of the immediate (first 30 min.) permeability changes in inflammation is _Histamine__.
In type one diabetes mellitus there is an over activity in the T helper cell ???????
In type one diabetes mellitus there is an over activity in the T helper cell one..
Microglia, Langerhan cells, and Kupffer cells are _ ???????
Microglia, Langerhan cells, and Kupffer cells are _ macrophages
The part of an antigen that is recognized as being foreign is called the _??????
The part of an antigen that is recognized as being foreign is called the _epitope
The major antigen processing cell is a _???????? ___.
The major antigen processing cell is a _macrophage ___.
Degranulation of _????? cells is the process by which Type I immediate hypersensitivity are mediated. These cells have Fc receptors for the Ig 0_?????? class.
Degranulation of _Mast_ cells is the process by which Type I immediate hypersensitivity are mediated. These cells have Fc receptors for the Ig _E class.
Isohemagglutinins such as anti - a and anti- b belong to the Ig. _???????__ class
Isohemagglutinins such as anti - a and anti- b belong to the Ig. _M__ class
. In asthma the expiratory phase of ventilation is prolonged and more difficult
. In asthma the expiratory phase of ventilation is prolonged and more difficult
Epinephrine is classified as a sympathoMIMIC and it is (nonselective ).
Epinephrine is classified as a sympathoMIMIC and it is (nonselective).
Alupent is classified as a ?????
Alupent is classified as a noncatacholamine Beta two selective adrenergic bronchiodilator.
diapedisis
Movement of White blood cells out of a blood vessel is called diapedisis and is an active process.
Myasthenia gravis is a Typ??????_ reaction that is caused by an anti ACH receptor antibodies.
Myasthenia gravis is a Type II__ reaction that is caused by an anti ACH receptor antibodies.
Graves disease is a Type ?????_ reaction that results in hyperthyroidism due to production of an antibody called a long acting thyroid stimulators
Graves disease is a Type II_ reaction that results in hyperthyroidism due to production of an antibody called a long acting thyroid stimulators
Serum sickness is a Type ?????? reaction which is caused by exposure to antibodies formed in response drugs make in non human hosts .
Serum sickness is a Type III_ reaction which is caused by exposure to antibodies formed in response drugs make in non human hosts .
SLE Systemic lupus erythematosus is a type _?????? immune complex reaction
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a type _III_immune complex reaction
Type I diabetes mellitus is a type ???? delayed hypersensitivity reaction that is mediated by _T killer cells .
Type I diabetes mellitus is a type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction that is mediated by _T killer cells .
SLE can cause damage to ??????????
SLE can cause damage to brain, liver, kidney, heart, and joints
Standard treatment for Crohn's disease includes ?????
Standard treatment for Crohn's disease includes corticosteroids, antibiotics and aminosalicylates. Also Infliximab which is a monoclonal antibody and cytotoxic drugs such as azathioprine.
A string intestine seen on an x-ray usually indicates _ ??????
A string intestine seen on an x-ray usually indicates _ Crohn's disease.
Granulomatous lesions are common in _??????
Granulomatous lesions are common in _Crohn's disease
Toxic megacolon is more common in Ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease
Toxic megacolon is more common in Ulcerative colitis
Discuss molecular mimicry.
Discuss molecular mimicry. A self antigen is attacked by an ab against a foreign antigen which looks very similar to structure to the self antigen. It is usually a post infectious complication where the self antigen and the foreign antigen are so similar in epitope regions that the antibody can not tell them apart
Acute pancreatitis is most commonly caused by ???????
Acute pancreatitis is most commonly caused by alcoholism and other biliary diseases_.
Fat necrosis in Acute Pancreatitis is caused by increased activation of the enzyme ?????
serum lipase
. Inactivation of surfactant in the lung is due to increased levels of
serum phospholipase
Adult respiratory distress syndrome ARDS is some times associated with
Acute Pancreatitis
Type I insulin dependent diabetes mellitus is highly correlated with HLA _???? and????? __
Type I insulin dependent diabetes mellitus is highly correlated with HLA _Dr3_ and Dr4__
What class of drugs used to treat asthma prevent mast cells degranulation?
Cromolyn sodium
Discuss theories on how autoimmunity may develop.
Exposure of a sequestered antigen- a previously hidden self antigen enters the blood stream and the immune system response against it., formation of a neoantigen - a self antigen is mutated due to disease or cancer and it is treated as nonself, escape of a forbidden clone - a clone against self is not destroyed during development and it becomes active against the self antigen, and molecular mimicry (a.k.a postinfectious complications) a foreign antigen looks like a self antigen and an antibody or T cell reacts against the self antigen as if it were the foreign antigen. . Also some type of thymus problems which leads to an imbalance between T helper cells and/or T suppressor cells
In Type I diabetes mellitus a Type IV reaction occurs first and this leads to a type II tissue specific disorder. True/Fals
True. The first damage to occur is due to molecular mimicry and involves T killer cells. After damage by T killer cells some membrane proteins are exposed (exposure of a previously sequestered antigen ) and the B cells become activated and produce antibodies against the previouly hidden proteins. This is the part that is a type two reaction.