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36 Cards in this Set

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Blood plasma is referred to as:
intravascular fluid
A 35-year-old male weights 70 kg. approximately how much of this weight is intracellular fluid?
28
Elderly individuals are at higher risk for developing dehydration because they have
a decreased lean body mass
Which of the following conditions would decrease oncotic pressure in the capillaries?
Liver failure
Water movement between the intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments is determined by:
osmotic forces
An experiment was designed to test the effects of the starling forces on fluid movement. which of the following alterations would result in fluid movement into the interstitial space?
Increase interstitial oncotic pressure
Water balance is closely related to _________ balance
sodium
a 70 year old male with chronic renal failure presents edema. Which of the following is the most likely cause of this condition?
Increased capillary hydrostatic pressure
Secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is stimulated by:
increased plasma osmolarity
A 60 year old male with a 30 year history of smoking is diagnosed with a hormone-secreting tumor of adrenal cortex. which of the following would be expected to accompany this condition
Increase urine osmolarity
a 10 year-old male is brought to the ER because he is incoherent semiconscious. CT scan reveals that he is suffering from cerebral edema. This type of edema is referred to as:
localized edema
Secretion of aldosterone results in
increased blood volume
A 25-year-old male is diagnosed with a hormone secreting tumor of adrenal cortex. Which of the following would expected to accompany this condition?
Decreased blood K+ levels
Nartriuretics hormones affect the balance of:
sodium
A 5-year-old male presents to the ER with delirium and sunken eyes. After diagnosing him with severe dehydration. the physician orders fluid replacement. The nurse administers a hypertonic IV solution. Which of the following would be expected
Intracellular dehydration
Which of the following conditions is the most significant risk factor for developing hypernatremia
Dehydration
The most common cause of pure water deficit is:
renal water loss
Hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia are associated with:
Hypertonic hyponatremia
A 52-year-old diabetic male presents to the ER with lethargy, confusion, and depressed reflexes. His wife indicated that he does not follow the prescribed diet and takes his medication sporadically. Which of the following is the most likely to occur?
Hypertonic hyponatremia
Hyperkalemia causes:
an increase in resting membrane potential with increased excitability of cardiac muscle
Which of the following would most likely cause hypochloremia?
Increased bicarbonate
Which of the following would most likely cause hyperkalemia
Acute acidosis
Long term potassium deficits result in damage to the:
Kidneys
A 42-year-old female presents to her physician complaining of muscle weakness and cardiac abnormalities. Laboratory tests indicate that she is hypokalemic. Which of the following could be the cause of her condition?
Primary hyperaldosteronism
A 19 year-old male presents to his physician complaining of restlessness, muscle cramping, and diarrhea. Lab tests reveal that he is hyperkalemic. Which of the following could have caused his condition?
Acidosis
A 60-year-old female is diagnosed with hyperkalemia. Which of the following would be an expected symptom?
Oliguria
which of the following buffer pairs is considered the major plasma buffering system?
HCO3/H2CO3
Regulation of acid-base balance through removal or retention of volatile acids is accomplished by the:
lungs
Physiologic pH is maintained around 7.4 because carbonic acid and bicarbonate exist in a ratio of:
20/1
Once cause of metabolic alkalosis is:
excessive loss of Cl-
which of the following conditions is commonly associated with hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis
Renal failure
Acute compensation for metabolic acidosis includes"
hyperventilation
Causes of respiratory acidosis include
Pneumonia
A 54-year-old male with a long history of smoking complains of excessive tiredness, shortness of breath, and overall ill feelings. Lab results reveal decreased ph, increased CO2 and normal bicabonate ion the most likely diagnosis is
respiratory acidosis
Chronis compensation for respiratory acidosis includes
Kidney excretion of K+
A 55 year old female presents to her physcian complaining of dizziness confusion and tingling in the extremites. Blood tests reveal an elevated pH, decreased PCO2 an slightly decreased HCO3
Respiratory alkalosis with renal compensation