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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
SIADH: what does it stand for
Syndrome of inappropriate ADH
SIADH: finds
1) excess water retention 2) hyponatremia [may lead to seizures - correct slowly] 3) urine osmolarity > serum osmolarity
SIADH: causes
1) Ectopic ADH [small cell lung cancer] 2) CNS disorders/head trauma 3) pulmonary disease 4) Drugs
What causes primary hyperparathyroidism?
Usually an adenoma
What are the findings of primary disease?
hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, hypophosphatemia, high parathyroid hormone, high cAMP in urine; often asymptomatic, may present with weakness and constipation
what is osteitis fibrosa cystica? (von Recklinghausen's syndrome)
cystic bone spaces filled with non-neoplastic fibrous tissue
What causes secondary hyperparathyroidism?
low serum Ca++, most often chronic renal disease.
What are the findings of secondary hyperparathyroidism?
hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, high parathyroid hormone
Hypoparathyroidism: findings
hypocalcemia, tetany.
Hypoparathyroidism: causes
accidental surgical excision (thyroid surgery) or DiGeorge syndrome
Hypoparathyroidism: note: pseudohypoparathyroidism
autosomal recessive kidney unresponsiveness to PTH. Hypocalcemia, shortened 4th/5th digits, short stature
Carcinoid syndrome: frequency
Carcinoid syndrome: cause
carcinoid tumors (neuroendocrine cells), especially those of the small bowel; they secrete high levels of serotonin (5-HT) that does not get metabolized by the liver due to liver metastases.
Carcinoid syndrome: symptoms
recurrent diarhea, cutaneous flushing, asthmatic wheezing, and right-sided valvular disease.
Carcinoid syndrome: most common tumor of what?
Carcinoid syndrome: lab
high 5-HIAA in urine
Carcinoid syndrome: Rule of 1/3s:
1/3 metastasize; 1/3 present with second malignancy; 1/3 multiple
Carcinoid syndrome: Treatment?
Carcinoid syndrome: What is this medication?
synthetic octapeptide analog of somatostatin (growth hormone-inhibiting hormone)
Carcinoid syndrome: 0
Carcinoid syndrome: Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
p. 264
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: What kind of tumor causes this?
Gastrin secreting tumor (usually) of the pancreas
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: what does it cause?
recurrent ulcers
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: may be associated with what?
MEN type I
Osteoporosis: what is this?
reduction in bone mass in spite of normal bone mineralization
Osteoporosis: what characterizes type 1?
Postmenopausal (10-15 years after menopause); increased bone reabsorption due to low estrogen levels. Treated with estrogen replacement
Osteoporosis: what characterizes type 2?
Senile osteoporosis - affects men and women > 70 y/o
Osteoporosis: what races are affected most?
Osteoporosis: symptoms of vertebral crush fractures
acute back pain, loss of height, kyphosis
Osteoporosis: other
distal radius (Colles') fracures, vertebral wedge fracures.