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51 Cards in this Set

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Systemic inflammation involving multiple organs is common in the immunologically mediated diseases, such as SLE.
_______ is also a systemic disorder that usually begins as a localized disorder.
Inflammations typically produce two important clinical findings:
1. Fever: an elevation in body temperature that exceeds 37 degrees centigrade. A typical response to acute inflammation caused by an endogenous pyrogen. Substances called _______ and _________ act on the thermoregulator centers in the Hypothalamus, which serves as a thermostat.
Interleukin I and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)
I and T
______________ is a potentially fatal disease that causes numerous detrimental effects to many organs, especially the brain and liver. It is associated with aspirin consumption by children with viral diseases such as chicken pox.

The disease causes fatty liver with minimal inflammation, and severe encephalopathy (with swelling of the brain). The liver may become slightly enlarged and firm, and there is a change in the appearance of the kidneys. Jaundice is not usually present.[1]

Early diagnosis is vital, otherwise death or severe brain damage may follow.
Reye's Syndrome
R Syndrome
If the threshold of the thermostat is raised, the temperature of the body rises.
The fever is mediated by prostaglandins that are released by pyrogens (IL-2 and TNF) in the hypothalamic center, and will abate on its own when the source of the inflammation is eradicated.
The pyrogens are released from ______ and _______ during inflammation.
PMNs and marcrophages
P and m
Prostaglandins are involved in the raising of body temperatures. This substance can block the effect of prostaglandins.
Inflammation typically produces two important clinical features: 1) Fever, 2) __________
Mediators of inflammation act on the bone marrow, stimulating rapid release of ________
Normal WBC count is less than 10,000 WBCs/mm3. When numbers exceed 12-15,000, this is called __________. In acute inflammation, the neutrophils predominate. Other symptoms are nonspecific, including weakness, depression, pain, exhaustion, and no ______.
leukocytosis, appetite
l, a
#1 cause of meningitis in AIDs patients
_________ virus can cause myocarditis
Considered to be the mildest form of inflammation.
Characterized by the exudation of fluid that is clear like serum, and occurs in the early stages of most inflammations.
serous inflammation
In early stages of pneumonia, this type of inflammation can be recognized as a proteinaceous material inside the alveolar space that contains only a few inflammatory cells that, as time goes by, proliferate in the fluid.
serous inflammation
Typical of many viral infections, such as the skin vesicles caused by Herpesvirus. These vesicles are filled with _____ fluid.
Autoimmune disorders, such as SLE, can affect the _______ surfaces and cause a _____ pericarditis, pleuritis, or peritonitis.
serosal, serous
s, s
2nd degree skin burns causes ______ blisters.
The ________ fluid is readily resorbed without consequences if the cause is eliminated.
serous, serous
s, s
This type of inflammation is characterized by an exudate that is rich in fibrin, formed from long strands of polymerized fibrinogen, which is one of the largest plasma proteins.
fibrinous inflammation
________ exudates are indicative of severe inflammation, and in contrast to serous exudates, which contains predominantly Ig’s and Albumin, that have leaked from intact blood vessels, extravasation of fibrin occurs through larger vascular or tissue defects.
This inflammation is seen in many bacterial infections, such as Strept throat or pneumonia.
fibrinous inflammation
Example of what type of inflammation: In tuberculous pericarditis, the surface of the heart is covered with shaggy, yellowish layers of ______ that bridge the space between the two layers of the pericardial sac, obliterating the cavity. When the friable fibrin strands are separated, the epicardium and pericardium resemble bread and butter taken apart.
fibrinous inflammation, fibrin
Example of what type of inflammation: Does not resolve as easily as a serous exudate.
Macrophages invade the exudate and have the capacity to lyse the fibrin.
Blood vessels grow into the exudate, providing a route for macrophages, and is responsible for the process of ___________, whereby the blood vessels fill the space occupied by fibrin and further obliterate it.
fibrinous inflammation, organization
f, o
In fibrinous inflammaition, the _________ in the exudate also stimulate the ingrowth of fibroblasts that further contributes to the fibrous adhesion (I.e. adhesive pericarditis).
The fibrous scarring of the pericardial sac may completely encase the heart and prevent its expansion in diastole (constrictive pericarditis)
adhesive pericarditis can lead to ________ pericarditis
What type of inflammation is this? Typically caused by pus-forming bacteria, such as Staph and Strept.
A viscous, yellow fluid composed of dead and dying PMN’s and necrotic tissue debris.
Pus may accumulate on the mucosa, skin, or in the internal organs.
purulent inflammation
A localized collection of pus with an organ or tissue is called an ________.
In purulent inflammaition, an abscess consists of a central portion of purulent material surrounded by a wall composed of a capsule of fibrotic granulation tissue. They do not heal spontaneously and must be evacuated.
Large abscesses tend to rupture, forming a ______ (a cavity usually occupied by a previous abscess that drains through a tract to the surface of the body
In purulent inflammation, large abscesses may also form _________, which are channels formed between two preexisting cavities or hollow organs and the surface of the body. A _______ can be formed between two loops of bowel, fused together by inflammation.
fistula, fistula
f, f
An accumulation of pus in a preformed cavity is called an ________ (ie. Thoracic ________)
Empyema, empyma
________ are characteristic of Crohn's disease.
Inflammation of body surfaces or the mucosa of hollow organs, like the stomach or intestines, may result in _________, or a loss of epithelial linings.
An ______ is defined as a defect involving the epithelium, but may extend into the deeper connective tissues as well (I.e. peptic _____)
ulcer, ulcer
u, u
A form of ulcerative inflammation that is combined with fibrinopurulent exudation.
pseudomembranous inflammation
p inflammation
The exudate of fibrin, pus, cellular debris and mucous forms a __________ on the surface of ulcers that can be scraped away to expose ulcerated defects that bleed profusely.
____________ causes pseudomembranous colitis, caused by a bacterial overgrowth secondary to intake of broad-spectrum antibiotics.
C. difficule
C. d
Diarrhea that contains necrotic tissue debris, mucous, shed epithelial cells from mucosa, RBCs and WBCs
_________ (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is the term for tenesmus (painful straining to pass stool), cramping, and frequent, small-volume severe diarrhea associated with blood in the feces. Symptoms frequently include fever and malaise.
90% of PID: trichamatis of clamydia, Nisseria gon
Two complications of PID: 1) sterility 2) ___________
ectopic pregnancy
e p
Inflammation that lasts a long time and produces more extensive tissue destruction and has a tendency to heal less readily.
chronic inflammation
c i
Marked by an exudate which contains lymphs, macrophages, and plasma cells, all which can stimulate proliferation of fibroblasts (collagen), with loss of parenchymal cells, and scarring. (I.e. fallopian tubes affected by PID are scarred and twisted.
chronic inflammation
c i
A special form of chronic inflammation that typically is not preceded by an acute, PMN-mediated inflammation.
granulomatous inflammation
g i
This type of inflammation may be caused by antigens that evoke a cell-mediated hypersensitivity reaction, or by antigens that persist at the site of inflammation.
granulomatous inflammation
g i
This is the prototype granulomatous disease, as are certain fungal diseases.
_____________ reactions are mediated by macrophages and T-lymphocytes that accumulate at the site of injury, forming nodules in which the macrophages interconnect with one another and transform into so-called epitheloid cells.
In contrast to macrophages that are motile and phagocytic, __________ cells are immobile and produce secretory products that act as mediators of inflammation.
This occurs in what type of inflammation? The epithelioid cells may fuse to form multi-nucleated giant cells found on the rim of the granulomas.
granulomatous inflammation
g i
TB, Histoplasma, and Cryptococcus are all associated with central _________ necrosis, in contrast to Sarcoidosis which exhibit non-caseating granulomas.
___________ destroy tissue and tend to persist for a long time.
What type of inflammation is this? In the lungs, confluent necrotizing granulomas may cause cavities, erode blood vessels, and ultimately destroy the lung.
Bleeding from these eroded blood vessels into the large lung cavities is a well known complication of pulmonary tuberculosis.
Fibrosis induced by chronic inflammation may destroy the organ and incapacitate the patient.
granulomatous inflammation
g i
PMNs and fibrin are characteristic of what?
acute inflammation
a i
Lymphocytes, macrophages, and plasma cells are characteristic of what?
chronic inflammation
c i
PMNs are associated with virus or bacteria?
Mononuclear cells are associated with a virus or bacteria?