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19 Cards in this Set

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Macrotrauma

Acute vascular-inflammatory response stage
Lasts 3 to 5 days
Sets the stage for repair
Activates the coagulation cascade
Removes damaged tissue
Recruits cells for repair
Provides initial wound strength
Macrotrauma

Repair-regeneration stage
Begins at 48 hours
May last up to 8 weeks
Fibroblast activation
Type III collagen production
Macrotrauma

The remodeling maturation phase
Lasts from weeks to months
Type III collagen is converted to Type I collagen
Increased cross-linking and organization
Microtrauma

Histopathology
Chronic inflammation
Cell matrix degeneration
Collagen disorganization
Absence of polymorphonuclear cells
Tendinosis
Chronic microtraumatic intratendinous degeneration
Microtrauma

Clinical profile
Chronic injury presents with pain well after the injury process has begun
Subclinical injury and dysfunction precede the moment of conscious injury
Apophysitis
Overuse Injury

seen in growing bone e.g. Osgood-Schlatter’s disease of the anterior tibial tubercle, or Sever’s disease of the calcaneal apophysis.
Tendonitis/partial rupture-
symptomatic degeneration with vascular disruption and inflammatory repair. Inflammation is a major characteristic, superimposed on acute or chronic injury. Symptoms are of classic inflammation.
Stress fracture-
most common in lower extremity e.g. metatarsal.
Tendon: the most common injury form
T/F
T
Tendonitis-
intratendinous degeneration owing to repetitive microtrauma, noninflammitory intratendinous, collagen degeneration. Presents as a palpable nodule with no tendon or sheath swelling e.g. Achilles
overuse injury in the mm
may present as a myositis, or as a chronic exertional compartment syndrome.
overuse injury in the Ligament
“strain” resulting in tissue degeneration from chronic microtrauma e.g. plantar fasciitis and breaststroker’s knee (MCL).
overuse injury in the Joints
may present as synovitis with generalized swelling, or focal irritation e.g. synovial plica of the knee.
Overuse Injury in the Bursae
Generally secondary to an overlying tendonitis e.g. subacromial bursitis secondary to supraspinatus tendonitis.
Overuse Injury in the NN
overuse compression neuropathies
e.g. carpal tunnel syndrome
Intrinsic Factors
Anatomical malalignments
Growth
Muscle-Tendon imbalance
Underlying disease states
Deconditioning
Instability
Extrinsic Factors
Training Errors
Environmental factors
Equipment factors
Technique
Subcellular Aspects of Overtraining
Elevated resting creatine kinase activity
Elevated resting cortisol levels
Decreased muscle glycogen
Decreased muscle testosterone
Increase in tissue catabolism
‘p’ factor =
= potassium, phosphoric acid, histamine