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54 Cards in this Set

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What is atrophy?
Decrease in cell size.
What is hypertrophy?
Increase in cell size assicociated with an increase of protein in cellular compnents, not increased cellular fluid.
Hyperplagia is...
Incrase in cell number resulting from increased cell division.
An example of compensetory hyperplagia is...
the regeneration of the liver when part of it is removed.
Dysplasia is...
abnormal changes in cell size, shape, and organization that can --> cancer.
Metaplasia i...
the reversible replacement of one mature cell by nother, sometimes less differentiated cell type.
List some injurious stimulus to cells
Chemical agents, hypozia, free radicals, infectious agents, phusical and mechanical factors, immunologic reactions, genetic factors, and nutritional imbalances.
List the sequelae of cell death caused by chemical/hypoxic exposure (6).
Disruption in plasma membrane permeability
reduction in cell metabolism
lack fo protein synthesis
damage to lysosome membranes
leakage from lysosomes and enzymatic destruction of organelles
Cell death --> phagocytosis
What are the 3 general machanisms of cell injury?
hypoxic injury
reactive oxygen specias and free-radical induced injury
chemical injury
The most common causeof hypoxia is ...
ischemia.
Irreversible cell damage is characterized byw hat two events?
Lack of ATP generation because of mitorchondrial dysfunction
Major disturbances and damage in membrane function (leaking lysosomes)
What is reperfusion injury?
During ischemia, excessive ATP use --> accumulation of hypoxanthine nad zanthine and with subsequent reperfusion are metabolized to xanthane oxidase and makes masive amts of superoxide and H peroxide, and NO which --> membrane damage and mitochondira CA overload.
What are reactive oxygen species?
kind of free radical that can induce oxidative stress.
Why are free radicals dangerous?
They have an unpaired e- and can cause other molecules to become unstable.
What damage can free radicals cause (5)?
Cell growth/proliferation
apoptosis
inflammatory gene expression
necrosis
matrix regulation
List 3 ways that free radicals may be initiated within cells.
1. Absorption of extreme light sources
2. Endogenous reactions that occur during normal metabolic processes
3. Enzymatic metabolism of exogenous chemicals/drigs
What are 3 importnat effects of free radical?
1. lipid peroxidation
2. alterations of proteins causing fragmentation of polypeptide chains
3. alterations of DNA including breakage
What is lipid peroxidation?
destruction of unsaturated fatty acids
Exposure to CCl4 causes what and how?
Fatty liver because lipid peroxidation breaks down the reticulum's lipid component and lipids accumulate within the cytoplasm because the poison blocks lipid-acceptor proteins.
How does lead cause cell damage?
By increasing intracellular Ca concentration to the point of causing damage.
How does carbon monoxide caluse cell damage?
CO replaces O on hemoglobin causing hypoxia.
CCL4 is converted to CCl3 in the ER and --> lipid peroxidation which causes cell damage by (4):
1. destruction of rough ER membrane-->dec. protein synthesis ded lipopritein synthesis and increased triglic content of liver cells (fatty liver)
2. destruction of plasma membrane--> Na H2O and Ca influx
3. Injury to mitochondira__> dec. ATP, increase of Ca in MC, anaerobic metabolism-->dec.pH
4. Dec ATP leads to lysosomal swelling and release of autoenzymes->autodigestion
What is the main metabolic pathway of ETOH?
ADH converts Ethanol into Acetaldehyde-->acetate and free fadicals
What is the chief mechanism behind immuniologic and inflammatory injury?
membrane alteration -->leakage of K out of cell and H2O in the cell
How does hypothermia cause cell damage?
Hypothermia increases intracellular Ca by sloing Na/K pump activity leading to accumlation of Na intracellularly.
What is ionizing radiation and some examples?
Any form of radiation that is capable of removing orbital e-s from atoms: xrays gamma rays alpha beta rays.
How does ionizing radiation cause damage?
Chromosomal aberrations occurr during cell division as a result of exposure because nucleic acids are damaged by free radicals.
What is an example of an accumulation effect?
Storage diseases where cells try to digest stored substances and then excessive amts of metabolites accumulate in the cell.
Describe the process of oncosis.
Injury causes hypoxia and ATP production decreases. Na and H2O move into cell and K moves out. More water is drawn into the cell. Cistrnaie of ER distend and vacules form in the cytoplasm filled o=with water. This is reversible though.
How does protein excess cause cell damage?
Metabolites (enzymes released from lysosomes) are made when the cell tries to digest some proteins and they can damage cellular organelles.
Excessive amts of protein in cytoplasm push against cellular organelles disrupting organelle fxn
What are hemoproteins?
most essential of normal endogenous pigments, include hemoglobin and oxidative enzymes(cytochromes)excessive storage of iron transferred to cells from the blood stream.
What causes hemoprotein accumulations in cells?
excessive storage of Fe transferred to cells from bloodstream
What is hemosiderin?
yellow/brown pigment derived from hemoglobin, storage form for Fe. You see this when a person bruises
What is hemosiderosis?
a condition in which excess Fe is stored as hemosiderin inthe cells of organs and tissues. This can causes liver and pancreatic cell damage.
How is Ca normally removed from the cytosol?
by ATP dependent Ca pumps.
What is dystropic calcificatioN?
Examples?
calcificaiton of dying and dead tissues
Ex: chronic Tb in lungs and lymphnodes. Accumulation in arteries, calcification of heart valves.
What is metastatic calcification?
Mineral deposits that occur in undamaged normal tissues as a result of hypercalcemia. (like hyperparathyroidism)
What is cellular necrosis? Tell tale sign?
Process of cellular dissolution.
You know this hshappening when you see a clumping of genetic material and disruption fo plasma and organelle membranes.
What is karyolysis?
nuclear dissolution and lysis of chromatin from action of hydrolytic enzymes
Whe the nycleus shrinks nad becomes a small ball of genetic material it is called...
pyknosis and it dissoves via karyolysis.
The nucleus dissolving into dust is called.....
karyorrhexis
Coagulative necrosis results from...
severe hypoxia or chemical injury. Albumin changes to a gelatinous state.
Liquifactive necrosis results from...
ischemic injury to neurons and glial cells in the brain (can be RT bacterial infection). Cells are digested bytheir own hydrolases and the tissue liquifies.
Caseous necrosis results from...
infection with TB. Is a combo of coagulative and liquifactive necrosis. Dead celsl disintegrate but hte debris isn't completely digested by hydrolases. Looks like cheese.
Fat necrosis is...
cellular dissolution caused by lipases that break down triglicerides and release free fatty acids that combine with Ca, Mg, and Na creating soaps, tissue looks chalky white.
Gangrenous necrosis is...
death of tisse resulting from sever hypoxic injury often related to arteriosclerosis or blockage of arteries.
Which organism is implicated in gas gangrene?
clostridium.
Describe apoptosis
Nuclear nad cytoplasmic shrinkage of a cell followed by fragmentatio int omembrane bound fragments and subsquent phagocytosis by other cells.
What are 3 things accepted as part of the mechanism of aging
1. cellchanges produced by genetic, envtal, and behavioral factors
2. changes in cellular regualtory control mechanisms
3. degenerative extracellular and vascular alterations
Which toxin has it's effect by increasing intracellular Ca levels?
Lead
So why are free radicals so bad anyway?
They can cause harmful changes like inappropriate cell growtha nd proliferaiton, apoptosis, inflammatory gene expression, necrosis, and interfere with matrix regulation.
What is the impact of ROS on the mitochondria?
Compromising ATP production, disrupting Ca homeostasis and increasing oxidative stress. Can also lead to apoptotic cell death by causing release of caspase/cytochrome C
How does Vitamin E relate to free radicals?
Free radicals destroy the lipid bilayer and vitamin E may prevent this
What is the target organ of damage for CCl4?
The liver.