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41 Cards in this Set

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Diagnosis
refers to the identification of a specific disease through evaluation of signs and symptoms, laboratory tests, or other tools.
Etiology
concerns the causative factors in a particular disease
idiopathic
If the cause of a disease is unknown
iatrogenic
If a treatment, a procedure, or an error may cause a disease
Pathogenesis
refers to the development of the disease or the sequence of events involved in the tissue changes related to the specific disease process
acute disease
indicates a sudden, short—term illness with marked signs such as high fever or severe pain, for example, acute appendicitis.
chronic disease
is often a milder condition, such as rheumatoid arthritis, but it persists for a long time. Often a chronic disease is marked by intermittent acute episodes.
subclinical state
is where pathologic changes occur, but no obvious manifestations are exhibited by the patient
latent stage
stage, in which no clinical signs are evident
incubation period
the time between exposure to the microorganism and the onset of signs or symptoms.
prodromal period
comprises the time in the early development of a disease when one is aware of a change in the body, but the signs are nonspecific—for example, fatigue, loss of appetite, or headache.
Manifestations
are the clinical evidence or effects (signs and symptoms or S/S) of disease. Example: redness and swelling which may be local or found at the site of the problem
Signs
are objective indicators of disease that are obvious to someone other than the affected individual. Examples of a sign are fever or a skin rash
Symptoms
are subjective feelings, such as pain or nausea.
Lesion
describes a specific local change in the tissue. Such a change may be microscopic, as when liver cells are examined for pathologic change, or highly visible, such as a blister or pimple observed on the skin
syndrome
is a collection of signs and symptoms that usually occur together in response to a certain condition, e.g., Toxic shock syndrome.
Diagnostic tests
are laboratory tests that assist in the diagnosis of a specific disease
Remissions
During a remission, the manifestations of the disease subside
exacerbations
during an exacerbation the signs increase
precipitating Factor
is a condition that triggers an acute episode, such as a seizure in an individual with a seizure disorder
Complications
are new secondary or additional problems that arise after the original disease begins. For example, following a heart attack, a person may develop congestive heart failure, a complication.
Therapy
or therapeutic interventions are treatment measures used to promote recovery or to slow the progress of a disease.
Surgery, drugs, or behavior modification
Convalescence
is the period of recovery and return to the normal healthy state; may last for several days or months
Prognosis
defines the probability for recovery
Mortality
figures indicate the relative number of deaths resulting from a particular disease
Epidemiology
is the science of tracking the pattern or occurrence of disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia
Epidemics
occurs when there are many cases of an infectious disease within a given area
Pandemics
involve high numbers of cases in several regions and perhaps worldwide
incidence
of a disease indicates the number of new cases noted within a stated time period.
Communicable
diseases are infections that can be spread from one person to another.
Atrophy
Decrease in size, malnutrition, aging
Hypertrophy
Increase in size, enlarged heart, exercise and skeletal muscles, more hormones (thyroid gland)
Hyperplasia
Increase in number of cells, uterus during pregnancy, hormonal imbalance, risk factor in cancer
Metaplasia
Replacement of cells, vitamin A deficit, cigarette smoke
Dysplasia
Vary in size and shape, increased division, chronic irritation or infection, precancerous, Pap smear
Anaplasia
Undifferentiated cells, cancer, grading of tumor
Neoplasms
Benign or Malignant, depends on types and growth
Ischemia
or deficit of oxygen in the cells, due to respiratory problems or circulatory obstruction
Hypoxia
decreased oxygen in the tissue
Necrosis
Death of cells
Gangrene
area of necrotic tissue