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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
_______ can release a Hydrogen ion
Acid
______can accept a H+ ion
Base
what determines the strength of an acid?
the degree at which is dissociates in water (release H+)
list the sources of acid-base in the body
metabolism
respiration
T/F

the Buffer system is important for long term regulation of acid-base balance
Short term
what is not true about buffers

a) Protein buffers are amphoteric
b) Bicarb buffers are the largest buffer system
c) slow acting
d) any
Protein buffers are largest system
Fast acting (short term)
List the types of buffer systems
protein
bicarb
List the types of ion exchange used for pH regulation
Ca2+/H+ - via bone tissue

K+/H+ - via cell membrane
Which pH regulatory mechanism can be used for short and longterm adjustments

a) Buffers
b) Ion exchange
c) Respiratory Mechanism
d) Renal Mechanism
Respiratory (adjust CO2)
T/F

CO2 cannot readily pass the blood brain barrier
F- can easily pass- PCO2 fluctuations stimulate respiratory centers to adjust rate/depth of breathing
changes in plasma pH during metabolic acidosis to stimulate changes in ventilation

a) Ca2+/H+ exchange
b) chemoreceptors
c) bicarb buffer system
d) tubular buffering
chemoreceptors on carotid bodies -> adjust ventilation
in order to reduce the number of H+ ions in the body

a) slow breathing to decrease CO2
b) breath faster to decrease CO2
c) slow breathing to increase CO2
d) breath faster to increase CO2
Breath Faster/Hyperventilate - Decrease CO2 in body /Release CO2 to environ (ex: exercise)
occurs during acidosis
define metabolic acidosis
primary bicarb xu with decreased plasma pH
list the causes of metabolic acidosis
xs production of metabolic acids
impaired elimination of metabolic acids
xs loss of bicarb ion
increased Cl- levels
Which is a manifestation of metab acidosis

a) hypo ventilation
b) increased urine pH
c) tetany
d) hyperkalemia
hyperkalemaia

(others are manifestations of Alkalosis)
which is not a manifestation of Metab acidosis
a) increase ammonia in urine
b) lethargy/ weakness
c) dysrhythmia
d) hyperventilation
all are manifestations of acidosis

(also, hyperkalemia- pump in K+ to pump out H+)
what happens to the blood chemistry during acidosis?
decrease pH, bicarb, PCO2
T/F

Metab Acidosis causes peripheral vasoconstriction
F

vasodilation
how does metab acidosis affect the rate and depth of breathing

a) increase rate, decrease depth
b) decrease rate, decrease depth
c) decrease rate, increase depth
d) increase rate, increase depth
increase rate, increase depth (hyperventilate to release co2 and increase pH)
define metabolic alkalosis
primary xs of bicarb or loss of H+ causing increased pH
which mechanism is used for long term acid base adjustment?
renal mechanisms via
H+ elim, HCO3- conserve
list the long term mechanism used to increase blood pH
renal mechanism
what is the purpose of tubular buffering

a) prevent damage caused by acidic urine
b) deamination
c) increase blood pH
d) decrease pH of urine
prevent damage to tubule bc of acidic urine
list the forms of tubular buffering
H3P04 syst
NH3/NH4Cl syst

prevent damage to tubule from acidic urine
which is not an example of a longterm acid/base regulatory mechanism

a) tubular buffer
b) H+/K+ elim
c) Aldosterone
d) ADH
ADH (vasopressin) - regulates water balance


(aldosterone increase Na+ absorption & K+, H+ secretion)
which stimulates NH3 synthesis from the tubular cell?

a) lo plasma K+
b) lo plasma H+
c) Alkalosis
d) all
lo plasma K+

acidosis decreases K+ elim and increases H+ elim
->causing an increase in [K+]
T/F

alkalosis decreases K+ elimination
F

alkalosis increases K+ elimination to conserve H+ to increase blood pH

acidosis conserves K+ and eliminates H+ to increase blood pH
Which is not true of Aldosterone

a) longterm acid base regulatory mech
b) Increases Na+ excretion
c) increases K+ secretion
d) increases H+ secretion
increases Na+ absorption
a deficit in bicarb with a decreased plasma pH is

a) Metabolic Acidosis
b) Metabolic Alkalosis
c) Respiratory Acidosis
d) Respiratory Alkalosis
Metab Acidosis
an anorexic teenage girl is at risk of developing

a) Metabolic Acidosis
b) Metabolic Alkalosis
c) Respiratory Acidosis
d) Respiratory Alkalosis
Metab Acidosis - caused by fasting and starving
list causes of metab acidosis
lactic acidosis
diabetic/alcohol ketoacidosis
fasting/starving
methanol/salicylate
KD failure
diarrhea (GI HCO3 loss)
increased Cl-
how does metab acidosis manifest

a) lo pH
b) Hyperventilation
c) C02- release
d) ammonia in urine
all- also decrease HC03-
a bulimic teenage girl is at risk of developing

a) Metab Acidosis
b) Metab Alkalosis
c) Respiratory Acidosis
d) Respiratory Alkalosis
metab alkalosis - binge-purge causes xs loss of H+
Which is not true of Metab Alkalosis

a) manifests with Hyperventilation
b) hi [HC03] in blood
c) hyperactive reflexes may occur
d) Increases PC02
manifests with HYPO-ventilation or increase PCO2 to raise blood pH
your patient px comes to you because they have been battling pneumonia, they have warm flushed skin and feel weak. a urine sample indicates abnormally lo pH. what is the likely diagnosis
respiratory acidosis - caused by LU disease
list possible causes of respiratory acidosis
LU diseases: (asthma, empysema, pneumonia, bronchitis, pulm edema..etc)
Impaired mech function of LU: (muscle paralysis, chest injury, kyphoscoliosis, obesity, head injury, drugs)
breathing air w hi [C02]
all are true about respiratory acidosis except

a) lo blood pH
b) lo PC02
c) Hi pH urine
d) All
will have LO pH urine -

also - increase HC03- to neutralize blood acidity
define respiratory alkalosis
decreased PC02 and H2C03 causing hi pH
Your px has a hi fever, feels dizzy, and experiences body numbness. a urine sample shows hi [HC03] in the urine. what is the diagnosis
respiratory alkalosis- caused by xs ventilation
T/F

To adjust for respiratory alkalosis the primary mechanism is to hypo-ventilate to retain CO2 in the blood
F
adjust via KD- urine becomes alkaline- elim HCO3-

(respiratory adjustments for metabolic alkalosis)
You patient has chronic bronchitis and often has difficulty breathing. This px has a higher risk of developing

a) metab acidosis
b) metab alkalosis
c) respiratory acidosis
d) respiratory alkalosis
resp acidosis-
caused by Lu disease/impaired mechanical fnctn of LU, and breathing air with hi CO2
Which is not likely to cause respiratory acidosis

a) fever
b) asthma
c) chest injury
d) obesity
e) any
fever- causes resp alkalosis due to xs ventilation