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24 Cards in this Set

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What is a hamartoma?
abnormally organized small mass of well-differentiated tissue occuring in the normal location
What is a choristoma?
small amount of normal tissue in a abnormal location
What is agenesis?
complete absence of an organ because its primordium is absent
What is aplasia?
absence of an organ because the primordium failed to develop
Pancreatic cells found in the intestinal wall is an example of what?
choristoma
What is goiter an example of?
pathological hyperplasia
What is metaplasia?
one adult cell is replaced by another adult cell type
sometimes bone forms in chronically inflammed muscle. What is this condition called and what is this a form of?
myositis ossificans, metaplasia
What is the most common type of metaplasia?
squamous metaplasia
What a three characteristics of neoplasia?
Neoplastic transformation is not reversible
neoplastic growth is autonomous
neoplastic tissue exceeds the normal tissue
T/F

any cell had the potential to become neoplastic.
false, terminally differentiated cells cannot become neoplastic
What must happen in order for a DNA mutation to become permanent?
The cell must undergo at least one division
What factors are necessary for metastasis?
loss of intracellular adhesion mol

loss of apoptotic control mechanisms

development of MMPs

Expression of integrins
What is the difference between proto-oncogenes and oncogenes?
Both promote mitosis, proto-oncogenes obey cell signals, oncogenes ignore all checks and balances and promote unbridled mitosis
What do Tumor Suppressor genes do?
encode regulatory proteins that inhibit mitosis
What are the 2 most important TSGs?
Retinoblastoma protein

p53
What does p53 do?
It causes cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage. It causes production of p21 which inhibits cyclin/cdk complexes
What are the five steps in BER?
recognition of DNA lesion
incision of damaged strand at both ends of lesions

removal of excised DNA
synthesis of a nucleotide patch
ligation of the patch with the incised ends
What enzyme is responsible for cell immortalization?
telomerase
What is the general way that viruses cause cancer?
insertional mutagenesis
What is the general way that chemicals cause cancer?
they damage DNA
In general, how does radiation cause cancer?
It causes DNA breaks, cross-links, and formation of pyrimidine dimers
What drug is sometimes used to treat cachexia?
ibuprofen. It inhibits cyclo-oxygenase and somehow results in a reduction of resting energy
What is endostatin and what is it used for?
It is a potent angiogenesis inhibitor and used to treat metastatic tumors