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17 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
3 phases of atherosclerosis
the fatty streak, the atheromatous plaque, and the complicated plaque.
Lipid deposits of the fatty streak in the intima of the aorta stain red with _____
Oil red O (red)
chemotractant for monocytes important in atherosclerosis
oxidized LDL
Foam cells are derived from both ____ and ____
macrophages and smooth muscle cells
The fibrous plaque is composed of...
a) the fibrous cap--a result of smooth muscle cell collagen deposition. Extracellular matrix including collagen, a few scattered foam cells and smooth cells.

b) the plaque center, in which foam cells, lymphocytes, cell debris, and cholesterol crystals predominate. Necrotic areas may be seen in advanced lesions.
most common site of syphilitic aneurysm
ascending and trensverse aortic arch, may also extend to the aortic valve ring
common site of dissecting aneurysm
origin of dissection usually in ascending arch, extends dsitally. May extend into subclavian, carotid, mesenteric, and renal arteries
usual site of atherosclerotic aneurysm
most common type of aortic aneurysm, usually occur in abdominal aorta below renal artieries, or in common iliac arteries
define: mycotic aneurysm
infection of aorta or large artery weakens vascular wall.
define: false aneurysm
perivascular hematomas following trauma
Most fatalities caused by atherosclerotic aneurysms result from ___________
rupture into the retroperitoneal space or peritoneum, causing massive blood loss with life-threatening hypotension and frequently death.
Type A and B of aortic dissection
Type A involve the ascending aorta and may extend into the descending aorta. These are the most common and most serious form.

Type B do not involve the ascending aorta and usually begin distal to the subclavian artery.
Hypertension contributes to the elements predisposing to dissection in two ways:
1.) Weakening and destruction of the medial wall of the aorta by cystic medial degeneration and elastic fragmentation.

2.) Increased shearing forces which occur with widening pulse pressure. The shearing forces may lead to intimal tear and promote the further dissection of blood within the media.
micrographic features of cystic medial degeneration and elastic fragmentation.
Cystic medial degeneration (also erroneously termed cystic medial “necrosis”) characterized by cyst-like spaces filled with mucin.

Elastic tissue stain showing fragmentation and discontinuity of the elasic fibers in the media, a finding in 95% of patients with aortic dissection.
degenerative changes in aortic media in marfans
Mucoid degeneration of the media of large elastic vessels is one prominent feature of Marfan’s syndrome.

Elastic fibers are fragmented with loss of continuity
The media of an aorta (usually proximal) affected by tertiary syphilis shows ____
loss of elastic fibers and replacement by dense collagen.
Risk factors for atherosclerosis
Hyperlipidemia
Hypertension
Diabetes
Cigarette smoking
Age
Sedentary Lifestyle
Male gender (until menopause)