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26 Cards in this Set

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Normal cells are said to be in homeostasis, when a cell undergoes stress//increased demand what happens
Adapation
This occurs every day
What results if there is no adaptation
Injury
Disease
Die
3 things
What are the 4 ways a Cell/Tissue can Adapt to Stress
Hyperplasia
Hypertrophy
Atrophy
Metaplasia
1-Define Hyperplasia
2- What happens to the organ in hyperplasia
3- Hyperplasia can only occur in what tissues
-Is Hyperplasia Physiologic or Pathologic?
-Increase the # of cells
-Increases in Volume
-Tissues that are capable of cell division
-Both
Give an example of a Physiologic Hyperplasia Event
High Altitude= More RBC produced by Bone Marrow, Lactating Breast (Hormonal)
2 are listed
Define Labile
-Give an Example
Continuously replenishing cells
- Epidermis, GI
Give an Example of cells that are incapable of dividing
Neurons and Cardiac Myocyte cells
Stem Cell Research will allow these cells to divide
What cells can divide but will if NECESSARY!
-What is it called
Liver Cells (Hepatocytes)
-Compensatory Hyperplasia
Induced by GF
How do you measure Proliferation?
Using Ki 67
Protein Present in S, G1, G2, M Phases of Cell Cycle
This type of Hyperplasia occurs b/c of Infection or Invasion of Tissue
Follicular Hyperplasia
-Occurs in Lymph Node
Antibody-Antigen
Hypertrophy of muscles in bladder wall lead to this type of Hyperplasia
- what is the drug used to treat this and how does it work
Prostate Hyperplasia
-Anasterin- blocks mechanism and hypertrophy reverses itself
-- Mechanism: T is taken up by stromal cells>>Modified into TG>>GF>> Leads to Hypertrophy of Gland
Difficult to Pee
Interfers w/ Urination
Change in Bladder Wall
What is Hypertrophy?
-How does this occur?
-Are these stem cells are mature cells
-What cause Hypertrophy
Increase in Size of Cells
-Increasing Cellular Components
-Mature Cells
-Increased Functional Demands
Physiologic and Pathologic
Name 3 tissues that undergoes Hypertrophy
Muscle Cells
- Increase Actin// Myosin
Liver Cells
-ER when metaboling drugs
Heart (Myocyte Cells)
-due to Peripheral resistance>> Hypertension
-this in Non Physiologic
- Physiologic in atheletes that work out (larger co>> lower hrt rate)
How do u get a Heart Attack
(Myocardial Infarct)
Decreased O or no O to heart (Anoxia)b/c of Obstruction of Blood Flow due to Athersclerosis>>Circumsized area of cell death
Can be fatal or non fatal
Fatal
-Hrt Failure
-Rupture of Heart
-Disturbance of Adaptation
What can facilitate the Hypertrophic Response in Muscle cells
Anabolic Steroids
Im gonna PUMP U UP
What animal is called the Champion of Mult. Hypertrophy
- Why
Belgain Blue
-Breed to produce less myostatin (prevents muscles from getting too big)
What is the cause of Calcific Aortic Stenosis
Narrowing of Aortic Valve>> Leads to Hypertrophy
Define Atrophy
-How does it occur
Loss of cell substance and/or cell #
-Imbalance between synthesis and degradation (via ubiquitination)
What 2 can things occur as a result of Atrophy
Autophagic vacuoles increas
Residual Bodies increase (process called lipofusion)
Residual bodies are a product of what?
lysis in lysosomes (when nothing else is left_
Name the 6 Categories of Atrophy
-Disuse
-Denervation
-Ischemia
-Inadequate Nutrition
-Hormone Stimulation Loss
-Senile Atrophy
DDIIHS
What are dense bodies made of
Lipofusion
Marker of Atrophy
What is lipofusion
Accumulation of Autophagic Vacuoles
Lipofusion>> Residual bodies (dense bodies)
Senile Atrophy- give two examples
testicular
cerebral (alzheimer's disease)
What is Metaplasia
-what induces metaplasia
when one cell type changes to another cell type
-Cytokines,GF
Give and example of Metaplasia
Espohagus
-Squamous cells change to columnar cells (Barett's Esphogaus)