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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define Leiomyoma of the uterus
Benign tumor of the Myometrium smooth muscle
This is the most common Uterine tumor and also most common of all tumors in women
Uterine Leiomyoma
T or F: Leiomyomas are more common in White women than Black women
False = more common in Blacks
When are Leiomyomas more common and why?
During the reproductive years because the smooth muscle cells respond to Estrogen = almost never found in prepubertal girls
What are these?
What is this?
What are some common clinical presentations of Leiomyomas
1. Menorrhagia
2. Abdominal mass
3. Pelvic pain, back pain, suprapubic discomfort
4. Infertility
What are 2 treatments for Leiomyomas?

Submucosal Leiomyoma
What specifically is this?
What are the 3 classifications of Leiomyomas?

*from inside out
Leiomyoma has become infected -> hemorrhage and necrosis -> pain
What has happened here?
What is a Leiomyosarcoma?
MALIGNANT Smooth Muscle tumor of the Myometrium of the uterus
How common are Leiomyosarcomas?

Do Leiomyomas transform to Leiomyosarcomas?

No, Leiomyosarcomas originate de novo and are unrelated to preexisting Leiomyomas
What is the gross pathology of Leiomyosarcomas?
Similar to Leiomyomas but with Necrosis, Hemorrhages, and Irregular borders
What are these showing?
Would these be Leiomyoma or Leiomyosarcoma?
Describe Endometriosis
presence of Endometrial glands and Stroma outside the uterus
What are some sites for Endometriosis
1. Ovaries
2. Tubes
3. Round ligaments
4. Distant organs = lungs, brain, skin
Describe the possible pathogenesis of Endometriosis
1. Retrograde menstruation through Fallopian Tubes
2. Hematogenous spread -> lungs, skin, brain
3. Celomic Metaplasia
List the Clinical features of Endometriosis
1. Dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation) ****
2. Dyspareunia (painful sex)
3. Chronic pelvic pain
4. Dysfunctional Uterine bleeding
5. Infertility

****most common
-Red Blue areas = Mulberry Nodules
-Powder burns secondary to hemosiderin

What is the condition?
Endometrial glands with Stroma

Hemorrhage and fibrosis around it
What is this?

How do you know?
-these five small areas of endometriosis have a reddish-brown to bluish appearance. Typical locations for endometriosis may include: ovaries, uterine ligaments, rectovaginal septum, pelvic peritoneum, and laparotomy scars. Endometriosis may even be found at more distant locations such as appendix and vagina.
What is this?
- Ovarian "chocolate" cyst
What is this?
Characterized by islands of Endometrium within the Myometrium

Endometrial glands and stroma in the Myometrium
What is this?

How do you know?
How do you distinguish Acute Salpingitis from Chronic?
Acute = PMN's

Chronic = Lymphocytes
What is the usual cause of Salingitis?
Ascending infections
-N. gonorrhoeae
-E. coli
Normal Fallopian Tube
What is this?
Fallopian tube filled with watery fluid
Fallopian tube filled with pus
What are the clinical features of Salpingitis?
1. Fibrosis, adhesions -> can close the lumen -> fertility problems

2. Ectopic pregnancy

3. Pain
Acute Salpingitis
What is this showing?
What is this showing?
Tubo-ovarian mass
What is this showing?
Tubo-ovarian abscess due to N. gonorrhoeae
What is this showing?
Ovarian cyst due to distention of the unruptured graafian follicle
Follicular cyst
Follicular cyst
What is this?
Normal Follicular follicle
What is this?
Follicular cyst lined by Granulosa cells
What is this?
What 2 things are Follicular cysts associated with?

Endometrial Hyperplasia
Corpus Luteum cysts
- yellow on the outside and hemorrhage on the inside
What are these?
Para-ovarian/Para-tubal cyst that got twisted, cutting off blood supply, and became necrotic
What is this showing?
Para-tubal/Para-ovarian cyst
What is this?
Para-tubal cyst
What is this?
Another name for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Stein-Leventhal Syndrome
What is Polycystic Ovary Syndrome characterized by clinically?
1. Amenorrhea / Anovulation
2. Infertility
3. Obesity
4. Hirsutism
What is the cause of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome?
Hormonal disturbance:
1. elevated LH
2. low FSH
3. elevated Testosterone
What characterizes Polycystic Ovary Syndrome morphologically?
1. thickened ovarian capsule

2. multiple small cortical Follicular Cysts

3. Absence of Corpora Lutea or Albicans
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
-follicular cysts
What is this showing?
Polycystis Ovary Syndrome
What is this showing?