• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/177

Click to flip

177 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What dopes the upper airway include?
Nasal cavity and sinuses

Guttural pouch and pharynx
Example of a development/congenital upper airway condition affecting boxers
Brachycephalic airway syndrome
In brachycephalic airway syndrome what happens to the nares?
stenotic
What happens to the pallet in BAS?
Elongated
What do the turbinates protrude into in BAS?
Nasopharynx
BAS Secondary changes include something happening to the laryngeal saccules - what?
Everted
What else is everted in BAS?
tonsils (secondary)
When can collapse in BAS?
Larynx
What fails to close in a cleft palate?
Palatine shelves
Where can food enter in a cleft palate that i cannot normally?
Nasal cavity
What type of cysts are occasionaly seen in the maxillary sinus of the foal or young horse?
Paranasal sinus cysts
What type of cysts are occasional found in cattle that expand the ventral conchae?
Cystic nasal conchae
What cysts occur (uncommonly) in the flase nostrils of horses?
Epidermal inclusion cysts
What condition affects foals, trapping air in the guttural pouch?
Guttural pouch tympany
What structures can guttural pouch tympany put under pressure that will cause dysphagia and dyspnoea?
Oesophagus and trachea
What can GP tympany lead to a predisposition of?
Guttural pouch empyema
What type of tissues can an upper airway tumour arise from?
Lining + glandular epithelium

Lymphoid

Cartilage, bone, blood vessels
What percentage of upper airway neoplasias are malignant?
80%
What is the most common tissue to be affected by uopper airway neoplasia?
Epithelial - carcinoma or adenocarcinoma
What type of neoplasia is more common in cats than dogs that could affect the upoper airway?
Lymphoma
What is the most common mesenchymal tumor?
Chrondrosarcoma
What are two non neoplastic DDX for neoplasia?
Chronic inflammatory polyps

Ethmoid Hematoma
Missing the circulatory stuff!
missing circ stuff
Inflammation of the nasal mucosa is known as
rhinitis
Sinusitis is....
inflammation of the sinuses!
There is a collection of mucus within the sinus, how do you describe it?
Mucoceole
There is an empyema in the sinuses - what the hell is that?!
Pus within the sinus
Your pharnyx is inflammed - how do you confuse the doctor?
Call it pharyngitis
What type of epithelium covers the respiratory airway
Pseudostratified
You are trying to classify a mild, acute inflammation with a clear watery discharge.
Serous inflammation
What creates this clear watery discharge?
Mucoserous glands
what is the inflammation called if there is goblet cells involvement?
Catarhal inflammation
Why might catarrhal dischrage be cloudy?
Neutrophils present within it
What do you call a catarrhal dischrage with neutrophils in it?
Mucopuruluent discharge
When does a mucopurulent discharge become a suppurative discharge?
Massive neutrophil emigration and epithelila sloughing
A dramatic increase in vascular permeability results in...?
An exudate of plasma fibrinogen
What does the plasma fibrinogen do?
Coagulate to form fibrin
If there is a necrotic, adhereent layer above viable tissue combined with inflammatory cells, what is this called?
Diptheteric membrane
What happens to the mucosa in chronic inflammation?
Mucrosal hyperplasia with epithelial and seromucosal gland hyperplasia
What do cells change to in epithelial metaplasia of the URT?
Stratified squamous cells.
What are the two predominant changes in chronic inflammation
Hyperplasia and metaplasia
Key chronic inflammatory cells?
Macrophages, Lymphocytes including plasma cells
What species do you normally see nasopharyngeal polyps?
cats
From where do polyps normally arise?
Auditory tube
tympanic bullae
What is a key URT in cows?
Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis
What virus is IBR
Bvine herpesvirus 1
How is IBR transmitted?
Aerosol
What cells types does IBR infect?
Nasal and conjunctival epithelial cells
What is the typical type of inflammation seen?
serous or catarhal
Damage to what mucosal system leads to an increased risk of secondary infection?
Mucosal escalator
following the infection of the epithelial cells what can happen?
dissemination through respiratory tree
Where do s equi colonise?
nasopharyngeal mucosa
Following infection of the nasopharyngeal mucosa, what structures are infected?
Lymph nodes.
Where abouts are the retropharyngeal lymph nodes in relation to the guttural pouch?
Below
Infection of the guttural pouch leads to
guttural pouch emyopema
What species is aspergillus fumigatus nroamlly seen in?
Dogs
What kind of response can the fungal plaques cause?
Fibronecrotic or granulomatous
What is a major issue with Aspergillus?
Lysis of the turbinates
Guttural pouch mycosis can can paralysis of what
facial muscles, tongue, pharyngeal muscles, larynx
What vessel can be ruptured inside the GP
Internal carotid art.
PATH OF LOWER
PATH OF LOWER
What is considered lower airway?
Trachea, Larynx, Bronchi, bronchioles
What breeds are normally affected by tracheal hypoplasia?
Brachcephalic
The diameter of the trachea is reduced, causing...
exertional dyspnoea
In what direction does the trachea normally collapse?
Dorsoventral
What breeds are commonly affected by dorsoventral tracheal collapse?
Minature and toy
What muscle is widened in DVTC?
Trachealis muscle
What noise does DVTC normally make?
goose honk
What does laryngeal paralysis resulyt from?
degeneration of recurrent laryngeal nerve.
What does degen of recurrent laryngeal nerve mean?
Cannot abduct arytenoid cartilage
What side is normally affected in horses?
Left
What are the cmmon types of epithelial tumours found in the larynx?
Papilloma
Squamous cell carcinoma
Adenoma/adenocarcinoma
What are cmmon types of mesenchym tumors found in the larynx?
Chondroma
Osteoma
leiomyoma
Rhabdomyoma

+ add sarcoma to the end for it all
What additional changes can occur in the lower airways?
Bronchiolitis obliterans
Bronchiectasis
When does bronchiolitis obliterans aoccur?
Severe bronchitis
First stage of BO?
Exposure of basement membrane
Exudate adheres to BM then...
This impairs reepithelialisation
What grows into the exudate
fibroblasts
What do the fibroblasts lay down>
collagen
What does the addtion of collagen do?
Creates a fibrous, polypoid nodule
What does airways obstruction lead to?
Dyspnoea
Cough
Increased resp noise
Hypoxia
Collapse or overinflation of luing
chronic in fection or Bronchectasis
What is bronchiectasis associated with?
Infection or obstruction
What are released by exudate in bronchiectasis?
Proteolytic enzymes
Proteolytic enzymes cause the ??? of the airway wall
Necrosis of bronchial wall
Necrosis of the bronchial wall casuses
Perm airway dilation
What are the hallmarks of Chronic bronchitis and bronchiOlitis?
Increased secretions
Thickening of airway walls
What is another name of kennel cough
Infectious trachealbronchitis
What is the prime suspect for kennel cough?
Bordetella bronchiseptica
What kind of inflammation does bronchiseptica cause?
Mucopurulent
What is the causative agent of laryngeal diphtheria?
Fusobacterium necrophorum
What is the Parasites tha produces nodules at the tracheal bifurcation?
Oslerus osleri
What is the main bovine lungworm?
Dictycaulos viviparous
What is the main allergy problem in horses?
Rao
What region does Rao affect most sevely?
Bronchioles
What are the allergens in Rao from
Mouoldy hay
What are the two Pathologies in Rao
Mucosal thickening and bronchospasm
What are the two most common abnormalities of inflation
Atelactasis and emphysema
How is atelectasis characterised?
Incomplete distension of the lung
What is the characteristics of emphysema?
Overinflation
Histology ally how will you identify atelectasis
Alveolar collapse spaces
Causes of atelectasis
Obstruction
Compression
Massive
Neoplasia
Massive causes include
Pneumothorax and loss of intra thoracic pressure
Histologically how will you identify emphysema?
Massive spaces between and ruptured alveolar walls
What factors causes emphysema
Forced expiratory and obstruction in airway

Increased airway resistance
Following rupture of alveolar walls what do you get?
Fibrosis
What are thin sequences of emphysema
Increased dead space, reduced gas perfusion, Reduced compliance
What are the two most common circulatory disturbances of the airways
Conhgestion
Oedema
Cuse of active congestion
Nflammation
What can cause reduced outflow and passive conjestion
Heart failure
Paul vein thrombosis or obstruction
What kind of fluid do you expect in oedema?
Amorphous eosinophillic
What can cause increased hydrostatic pressure?
Back flow In heart failure
Inflammation
Circulatory overload such as in renal failure.
What can cause increased alveolar permeability
Endothelial damage by toxins
Shock
Inflammation
What can cause reduced osmotic pressure
Hypoproteinaemia
Why is the lung resistant to infarction
Dual blood supply
Pul art and bronchial art
What can cause thrombus
Turbulent flow
Increased coag
Damage to vascular walls
What can cause damage to vascular walls and endothelium in dogs?
Angiostatin gyms vasorum
What kind of embolisms can you get?
Fat, air, Thrombolism, Timour, fb, parasites
Extent of damage from embolism
Site,
Nature,
Preexisting
3 common causes of septic emboli
Right heart valve endocarditis
Joint and umbilical infections
Lover abscesses
In what situation are you mor elikely to get intravascukar Haemorrage and so no necrosis of Alveloa
Niral healthy lung

Trombolysis and healing
Species cmmon for lung lobe torsion
Dogs
What happens in lung lobe torsion
Rotation around haikus, predisposed if already diseased
What is eiph
Exercised induced pulmonary Haemorrage
Causes of pulmonary hypertension
Left to right shunt

Increased vascular resistance
What can cause increased vascular resistance?
Reduced outflow

Reduced vessel diameter
Common causes of reduced vessel diameter
Thromboembolism

Lung fibrosis
Sequel of Pul hypertension
Pressure overload of right heart
What can cause cardiovascular Hypertension?
Cardiovascular shunts

Increased vascular resistance
What will cuase the increased vascular resistance?
Reduced out flow (chf)

Reduced vessel diameters.
Small airway syndrome
Thomboembolism
Lung fibrosis
Fibrinoid necrosis is possible in
Acute hypertension
What is the origin of most primary tumours in the lungz.
Epithelial
What is the most common cause of lung tumours?
Metastasis
What is driving sickness?
Jaaksiekte? Pulmonary adenomatosis
What causes pulmonary adenomatosis?
Retro virus
Describe He neoplasia of pulmonary adenomatosis
Multicentric bronchoalveloar carcinoma
How do yourecoginise jaaksiekte?
Wheelbarrow test

Mucoid fluid
What are the four types of pneumonia?
Broncho
Interstitial
Embolic
Granulomatous
What is the most common pbeumonia
Broncho
I pn what soecies are septa seperating Lobules absent?
Dog and cat
Following Pathogen at bronchoalveolar junction what happens?
Inflam, exudation, oedema?..

Then Spread to adjacent lobules and alveoli
How is bronchopneumonia normally classified?
Supporative or fibrinous
What is the cause of enzootic pneumonia in pigs?
Mycoplasma hyopneumonia
What does m hyopneumonia do?
Damages cilia allowing colonisation of Lower airways
What cuases shipping fever?
Mannheimmia haemolytica
What is the sequel to Bronchopneumonia
Chronic
Cornic inflam,
Fibrosis, goblet metaplasia
Atelectasis
Emphysema
Obliterans
Ectasis
What is the typical route of interstitial pneumonia?
Inalation or haematogenous
What is the primary focus for Interstitial
Alveoli and alveoli walls
What are the threephases of interstitial pneumonia?
Injury
Exudative
Proliferation
What happens in phase 1
Injury to type 1 pneumocytes or endothelial cells
Phase 2
Inflammatory exudate?

May see hylaine membrane
Phase 3
Macrophages To rmoeve exudate

Type 2 pneumocytes To replace lost t1
What happens in chronic interstitial?
Peristsenc eof ttpe 2
Accumaltion of inflam cells
Interstitial fibrosis
4 causes of intersttial
Infection- Septiceimc salmonellosis

Acute hypersensitivity - T3 to fungal
Lungworm reinfectio

Toxins - tryptophan ( fog fever)
First step in fog fever
Grass l tryptophan
Fog fever in rumen
3 methyl Indole
Clara. Ells
Toxic metabolite
All interstitial will lead to
Ttpe 1 pneumocyte injury
Ten type 2

If continues then fibrosis and chronic
What happens if hylaiine mebrsne ooccurs in acute severe
Death
Route for embolich
Hematog
3 common causes of embolic
Helatic abscess
Right heart vakve endocarxitis
Joint and umbilical infection
Seqeulae of embolic
Fibrosis and resolution
Chronic
Pleuritis
Rupture and pyothorax and Pneumothorax
Cause of granulomatous
Perist in tissue

Resistant to phagocyt and acute inflam
Bacterial cuases of granulom
Mycobact
Actinomyces
Parasitic cause
Viviparus
Viral
Fip corona
Other
Fungal and fb
Most common route for m bovis tb
Inhalationinhalation of M. bovis and phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages is most common. If the mycobacterium is not killed by the macrophage then it will multiply intracellularly and spread within the lungs via the airways and to the tracheobronchial lymph nodes via the lymphatics. Further dissemination may occur to other organs.
Early changes are small granulomas often in the dorsocaudal and subpleural lung regions. Over time, these granulomas enlarge and coalesce to produce large areas of caseous necrosis surrounded by giant cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells and fibrosis.
Degen of pleura
Mineralisation
Causes of mineralisation
Uremia
Vit d tox
Pneumoirax
rupture of a pulmonary abscess, emphysematous bulla, or parasitic cysts that communicate with an airway
Traumatic pneumo
Ruoture of wall or lung tissue
Hydrothorax
Heart failure
Intrathoracic tumor
Hypoprot
Haemothorax
 traumatic rupture of blood vessels
 inflammation
 neoplasia
 clotting disorders
Chylothorax
Accumalation of lymph
Traumatic rupture of Major lymphatic vessel

Neoplastic erosion
Heart dx
Pyothorax
Penetrating
Fb
Abscess

 traumatic rupture of blood vessels
 inflammation
 neoplasia
 clotting disorders
Pleural neoplasia
Mesothilieoma
Causes of pleuritis
Extension of bronchopneumonia
Bacteremia by e coli, Srep suis,

Viral fip

Pyothorax, lung tosrion