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26 Cards in this Set

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functional units of the nervous system in both the CNS & PNS. produce neurotransmitters glutamate and acetylcholine.
neurons
glial cells which act as stromal cells of the nervous system and react to CNS injury; form blood/brain barrier; clean up neurotransmitters.
astrocytes
glial cells which function as CNS macrophages; originate from marrow; clean-up
microglia
specialized ciliated glial cells which line the ventricular cavities and central canal of the spinal cord; ventricular brain barrier
ependyma
glial cells which form myelin sheaths around nerve fibers of the CNS early in fetal life; necessary to maintain its integrity throughout life but cannot replace destroyed myelin
oligodendroglia
cells form and maintain the myelin sheaths around peripheral nerve axons; can regenerate mylein sheaths around the PN axons.
schwann cells
general reactions to injury include:
cerebral edema which in turn may increase intracranial pressure (CSF pressure > 200mm H20)
occurs when the volume of material (fluid, blood, tissue, etc.) within the cranium exceeds its physical capacity
increased intracranial pressure
clinical presentation of increased intracranial pressure
usually intermittent headache, mental slowness, confusion, and papilledema
complications of increased intracranial pressure
herniation of the brain; can cause instant death
subfalcine herniations--falx cerebri
uncal herniations--tenorium cerebelli
tonsillar herniations--foramen magnum
reabsorbs CSF into the venous circulation
arachnoid granulations
hydrocephalus results due to:
obstruction of CSF flow, an increase in CSF production, or a decrease in reabsorption
if hydrocephalus occurs before the cranial bones fuse in infancy, this is the result
enlargement of the head
acute hydrocephalus will cause symptoms related to:
increased intracranial pressure (headache, nausea, vomiting, mental slowness, confusion, papilledema)
clinical presentation of slowly progressive hydrocephalus
may not show elevated CSF pressures; progressive dementia, gait disturbances, incontinence
relates to compensatory ventricular dilation secondary to brain atrophy
hydrocephalus ex-vacuo
this type of fracture due to trauma may tear vessels and the dura and contuse or lacerate underlying brain tissue
depressed fracture of the skull
this type of fracture due to trauma may communicate with the sinuses or middle ear and result in leakage of CSF and increased risk of meningitis and intracranial infections
fracture of the base of the skull
clinical diagnosis characterized by transient loss of consciousness with retrograde and anterograde amnesia
concussion
are usually superficial areas of necrosis of the cortex resulting from crushing of CNS tissue by blunt force
coup lesions (contusion)
brain is set in motion, it will strike the inside of the skull opposite the point of original contact and may produce this which is more extensive than coup lesions
contrecoup lesions
contusions which can act as foci of seizure activity are most often seen where?
on the inferior surface of frontal lobes, anterior tip of temporal lobes, and occipital poles
**seizure activity especially in the temporal lobes
hemorrhage into the potential space btwn the skull and dura mater and leptomeninges; usually associated with blunt trauma but without overlying skull fracture
subdural hemorrhage
this type of hemorrhage becomes clinically apparent within a few days after the trauma and are manifested by fluctuating levels of consciousness and signs related to brain herniation
acute subdural hemorrhage
this type of hemorrhage becomes clinically apparent weeks or months after often otherwise insignificant head trauma and are manifested by slowly developing confusion and inattention which may progress to signs and overt herniation
chronic subdural hemorrhage
refers to bleeding into the space btwn the brain and the leptomeninges; blood is identified in the CSF; trauma is the most common cause but other conditions can lead to this
subarachnoid hemorrhage