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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What type of tumor excludes skeletal, epithelial, viscera, coverings of the brain, and lymphoreticular systems?
soft tissue tumors
Where are the top two locations for soft tissue tumors to develop?
lower extremities (thigh) and trunk/retroperitoneum
How can you differentiate benign and malignant soft tissue tumors by border?
benign: infiltrative borders
malignant: pushing borders
(this is the opposite of epithelial tumors)
Name five characteristics of malignant soft tissue tumors?
pushing borders, hypercellularity, increased mitoses, cellular atypia, tumoral necrosis
When do most soft tissue tumors present?
old age
What age group gets rhabdomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, and liposarcoma?
rhabdomyosarcoma: children, adolescents
synovial sarcoma: ages 20-40
malignant fibrous histiocytoma: adults
liposarcoma: adults
Which comes first when a soft tissue tumor presents?
swelling then pain
When sarcomas metastasize through the blood stream, where does it go?
lungs and liver
Name four soft tissue tumors that metastasize to lymph nodes?
synovial sarcoma, epithelioid sarcomas, sarcomas with epithelioid differentiation, rhabdomyosarcoma
Name a diagnostic translocation associated with rhabdomyosarcoma (alveolar type).
t(2,13) - fusion of PAX3 and FKHR
Name 6 tissues of origin from which a soft tissue tumor might develop?
fat (lip-)
fibroblast (fibro-)
skeletal muscle (rhabdomyo-)
smooth muscle (leiomyo-)
endothelial (hemangio-/angio-)
peripheral nerve (neuro-)
What is the most common soft tissue tumor of adulthood?
How do atypical lipomas and well differentiated liposarcomas differ in presentation?
atypical lipoma: occurs in extremities, easily resected, rarely recurs
well differentiated liposarcomas: occurs in retroperitoneum, found when producing compression symptoms, hard to resect, recurs frequently and can kill
Name a rapidly growing fibrous lesion?
nodular fasciitis
What demographic of people does myositis ossificans occur in?
athletic adolescents
Which superficial fibromatoses is associated with alcoholism?
Dupuytren's contractures
What aggressive fibromatoses presents in pregnant women?
abdominal desmoid
What aggressive fibromatoses presents in patients with Gardner's syndrome?
intra-abdominal desmoids
What is Gardner's syndrome?
adenomatous polyps of the colon, osteochondromas, and sebaceous cysts
How do you treat fibromatoses? What is the prognosis?
wide excision, do not use radiation/chemo because they don't metastasize, they have a 50% recurrence rate and the recurrence rate increases with each subsequent recurrence
What tumor presents as bland spindle cells in a storiform pattern?
benign fibrous histiocytoma
Tumors with skeletal muscle differentiation are almost always (benign/malignant).
What is the most frequent soft tissue sarcoma of childhood? most frequent sarcoma in general?
rhabdomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma
Describe the histological appearance or rhabdomyosarcoma.
small round blue cell tumor, cells have eccentric eosinophilic cytoplasm with sarcomere filaments, positive staining for actin desmin and myoglobin,
What tumor has cells with cigar shaped nuclei
What is the common name for a leiomyoma?
fibroids, common cause for hysterectomy!
What is the most common neural tumor?
How does schwannoma differ from neurofibroma?
schwannoma: tumor arises outside the nerve
neurofibroma: tumor arises within the nerve