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31 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is NEOPLASIA?
uncontrolled, disorderly proliferation of cells; results in benign or malignant tumor (NEOPLASM)
What is DYSPLASIA?
is REVERSIBLE, often precedes malignancy, abnormal maturation, spatial arrangement, varied nuclear size/shape, inc mitosis
What is the most commonly seen dysplasia?
dysplasia of squamous epithelium of cervix (often a precursor of malignancy)
What is a WELL DIFFERENTIATED NEOPLASM?
if resemblence to tissue of origin is close
What is a POORLY DIFFERENTIATED NEOPLASM?
if little resemblence to tissue of origin is seen
What are some fundamental characteristics of neoplasms?
independent of host control mechanisms, dependent on host for nutrition and blood supply
What is a PAPILLOMA?
benign epithelial neoplasm w/finger-like processes

often from squamous epithelium (skin, larynx, tongue) or transitional epithelium (bladder, ureter, pelvis)
What is an ADENOMA?
benign, epithelial neoplasm derived from glands OR producing gland patterns
What is a PAPILLARY CYSTADENOMA?
neoplasm w/adenomatous papillary processes that extend into (hollow) cystic spaces (ex. cystadenoma of ovary)
What is a FIBROADENOMA?
has proliferation of connective tissue surrounding neoplastic glandular epithelium (ex. fibroadenoma of breast)
What is a POLYP?
mass that projects above a mucosal surface (ex. in colon); may be malignant
What tissues are of MESENCHYMAL ORIGIN?
connective and endothelial tissue, blood cells, muscle
Benign tumors of connective tissue?
FIBROMA (fibrous tissue)
LIPOMA (fat cells)
CHONDROMA (cartilage)
OSTEOMA (bone)
Benign endothelial tumors?
HEMANGIOMA (blood vessels)
LYMPHANGIOMA (lymph vessels)
MENINGIOMA (meninges)
Benign muscle tumors?
LEIOMYOMA (smooth muscle)
RHABDOMYOMA (striated muscle)
Most common neoplasm of women?
UTERINE LEIOMYOMA (aka FIBROID TUMOR)
What is a CHORISTOMA?
small non-neoplastic area of normal tissue misplaced w/in another organ
What is a HAMARTOMA?
non-neoplastic mass of disorganized tissue indigenous to a particular site (ex. hemangioma)
What is a CARCINOMA?
tumor of epithelial origin
What is a SARCOMA?
tumor of mesenchymal origin
What is a SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA?
from stratified squamous epithelium (ex. skin, mouth, esophagus, vagina), areas of squamous metaplasia (ex. bronchi), or squamocolumnar jn (uterine cervix)

*marked by production of keratin*
What is a TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA?
from transitional epithelium of urinary tract
What is an ADENOCARCINOMA?
neoplastic epithelial cells grow in gland patterns (ex. GI mucosa, endometrium, pancreas); often associated with DESMOPLASIA (tumor-induced proliferation of non-neoplastic fibrous connective tissue)
Malignant tumors of connective (and related) tissues?
FIBROSARCOMA (fibrous tissue)
LIPOSARCOMA (fatty tissue)
CHONDROSARCOMA (cartilage)
OSTEOGENIC SARCOMA or OSTEOSARCOMA (bone)
Malignant tumors of endothelial (and related) tissues?
ANGIOSARCOMA (blood vessels)
LYMPHANGIOSARCOMA (lymph vessels)
SYNOVIAL SARCOMA (synovium)
MESOTHELIOMA (mesothelium)
INVASIVE MENINGIOMA (meninges)
Malignant tumors of blood (and related) cells?
LEUKEMIAS (hematopoietic cells)
MALIGNANT LYMPHOMAS (lymphoid tissue)
Malignant tumors of muscle tissue?
LEIOMYOSARCOMA (smooth)
RHABDOMYOSARCOMA (striated)
What is a TERATOMA?
derived from multiple germ layers (totipotent cells), usu in ovaries in testes, may contain skin, bone, cartilage, teeth, intestinal epithelium

(can be benign or malignant)
What is ANAPLASIA?
lack of differentiation (characteristic of malignant neoplasms)
What is PLEOMORPHISM?
marked variation in size and shape (seen in anaplastic cells)
What types of cellular characteristics do malignant neoplasms typically display?
anaplasia, pleomorphism, hyperchromatism (dark staining nuclei), increased nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, abnormal mitoses, cellular dyspolarity, prominent nucleoli